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Resilient and Enduring Pedagogies Gary Poole Institute for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning UBC Deakin University February 16, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Resilient and Enduring Pedagogies Gary Poole Institute for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning UBC Deakin University February 16, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Resilient and Enduring Pedagogies Gary Poole Institute for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning UBC Deakin University February 16, 2007

2 Resilient and Enduring Pedagogies Gary Poole Institute for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning UBC Deakin University February 16, 2007

3 Some Definitions en·dure v to last or survive over a period of time, especially when faced with difficulties Encarta® World English Dictionary © 1999 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Developed for Microsoft by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc re·sil·ience n “a dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity” Luthar, Cicchetti & Becker, 2000, p. 543

4 One More Definition ped·a·go·gy n The strategies, techniques, and approaches that teachers can use to facilitate learning The Ohio State University, Faculty and TA Development, ftad.osu.edu/CSP/glossary.html An educational approach characterized by authority and directed learning; pedagogy as “arrogance” Fenwick, 2006

5 One More Definition ped·a·go·gy n The strategies, techniques, and approaches that teachers can use to facilitate learning The Ohio State University, Faculty and TA Development, ftad.osu.edu/CSP/glossary.html An educational approach characterized by authority and directed learning; pedagogy as “arrogance” Fenwick, 2006

6 One More Definition ped·a·go·gy n The strategies, techniques, and approaches that teachers can use to facilitate learning The Ohio State University, Faculty and TA Development, ftad.osu.edu/CSP/glossary.html An educational approach characterized by authority and directed learning; pedagogy as “arrogance” Fenwick, 2006

7 The Responsive Approach: Pedagogy should change as ways of learning change Pedagogies should be no more or less resilient or enduring than are people’s ways of learning

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9 From How People Learn (Bransford et al., 2000) Learning is facilitated by connections between the new and the familiar Learning is facilitated by “deliberate practice” — salient feedback that draws learner’ focus Deep learning (understanding) facilitates transfer Deep learning is time consuming Motivation matters

10 Motivation Matters Social impact and perceived usefulness Social comparison and social construction facilitate deep learning The arithmetic of social construction Wikipedia had 917,000 visits per day in October, Zones of proximal development the distance between the actual developmental level and the level of potential development (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86)

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12 Challenge and Support (Mezirow, 1991) Challenge Lo High Lo Support High

13 Challenge and Support (Mezirow, 1991) Challenge Lo High Lo Support High Stagnation

14 Challenge and Support (Mezirow, 1991) Challenge Lo High Lo Support High StagnationAnxiety

15 Challenge and Support (Mezirow, 1991) Challenge Lo High Lo Support High StagnationAnxiety Dependency

16 Challenge and Support (Mezirow, 1991) Challenge Lo High Lo Support High StagnationAnxiety DependencyGrowth

17 The ways of learning identified by Bransford, Vgotsky, Mesirow and others are enduring

18 Brain-Compatible Learning (Pinker, 1997) The brain is a parallel processor Much of that parallel processing combines conscious and “out-of-conscious” learning The brain encodes context with information Learning requires active processing

19 Pedagogies that should endure Linking the new with the familiar Mnemonic devices and memorization Prior Learning Assessment Salient feedback Web-based self-tests Personal Response Systems Communication with others Social comparison Social construction Impact as motivation Perceived usefulness and motivation Problem-based learning Inquiry-based learning Balancing challenge and support Managing “instructor presence” online

20 Pedagogies that should endure Teaching/learning facilitation strategies should allow learners to uncover out-of-conscious lessons Context should be made salient as often as possible Where and when did you first learn this? Can you pinpoint the moment in an online discussion? Bus ride? Class? All presentations of information should be accompanied by active processing opportunities “Take this home and learn it” isn’t enough “Click on the rock to read about its attributes” isn’t much better

21 But Isn’t Technology Affecting the Nature of Cognitive Processing? Multitasking and “bottlenecks” Law, Logie & Pearson, 2006 Lien, Ruthruff & Johnston, 2006

22 Using a cell phone while driving: A classic “dual task” challenge Motorists who use cell phones while driving are four times as likely to get into crashes serious enough to injure themselves, according to a study of drivers in Perth, conducted by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Motorists who talked on hands-free cell phones were 18 percent slower in braking and were twice as likely to have a rear-end collision. A September 2004 study from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (US) found that drivers using hands-free cell phones had to redial calls 40 percent of the time, compared with 18 percent for drivers using hand-held sets.

23 But Isn’t Technology Affecting the Nature of Cognitive Processing? Multitasking and “bottlenecks” Law, Logie & Pearson, 2006 Lien, Ruthruff & Johnston, 2006 Video games and resistance to “distractors” Green & Bavelier, 2006

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25 But Isn’t Technology Affecting the Nature of Cognitive Processing? Multitasking and “bottlenecks” Law, Logie & Pearson, 2006 Lien, Ruthruff & Johnston, 2006 Video games and resistance to “distractors” Green & Bavelier, 2006 Changes in speed of processing?

26 Conclusions The look may change over time, but many forms of pedagogy endure Pedagogies endure because ways of learning are resilient and enduring Technology is enabling new levels of social construction and this will spawn new pedagogies


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