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Teaching through metacognition An approach to show pupils the necessity to change – if they are to learn (Based upon Vygotsky and cognitive psychology) ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 1
The necessity to change ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 2 Learning is often defined as a relatively lasting change in behavior that is the result of experience.
The teachers attitude ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 3 Making sure the pupils experiences learning/change as soon as possible in the course. If we were to count seconds: 1.000 = 16 minutes and 40 seconds 1.000.000 = 11 days, 13 hours, 46 minutes and 40 seconds 1.000.000.000 = 31 years, 270 days, 15 hours, 33 minutes and 20 seconds This shows that the brain might tric us when we try to learn something.
The pupils 1. People who have experienced failure earlier in life when it comes to learning: Resistance 2. People who has not had a real opportunity to learn earlier in life: Too high degree of respect for the system/teachers ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 4
Metacognition is defined as: «Your knowledge and control of your cognitive processes» (Margareth. W. Matlin, page 196) ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 5
«Metacognition is an area where there seems to be interesting possibilities when it comes to education. It is important because it goes directly into some of the principles of education where we might have taken for granted that we all «think alike» – something we definitely do not!» Gunn Imsen (2005, s. 126) ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 6
A cognitive model ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 7
Strategies/ways of learning There are no right way to learn, and some which are wrong. If the pupil has a way to learn, where he/she actually learns the knowledge: Then its correct! One way of learning might be demanding when it comes to time-consuming and craving energy. The teacher can, through guidance, help the pupil to become more efficient in their way of learning, perhaps help the student to find a better strategy – which is less time- consuming/saves energy. ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 8
Why teach metacognition? The goal is to find the most efficient way for the brain to relate to, and process information and knowledge. ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 9
As written in OECDs paper about the Definition and Selection of Key Competencies: Reflectiveness – the heart of key competencies An underlying part of this framework is reflective thought and action. Thinking reflectively demands relatively complex mental processes and requires the subject of a thought process to become its object. For example, having applied themselves to mastering a particular mental technique, reflectiveness allows individuals to then think about this technique, assimilate it, relate it to other aspects of their experiences, and to change or adapt it. Individuals who are reflective also follow up such thought processes with practice or action. ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 10
Thus, reflectiveness implies the use of metacognitive skills (thinking about thinking), creative abilities and taking a critical stance. It is not just about how individuals think, but also about how they construct experience more generally, including their thoughts, feelings and social relations. This requires individuals to reach a level of social maturity that allows them to distance themselves from social pressures, take different perspectives, make independent judgments and take responsibility for their actions. (The Definition and Selection of Key Competencies, Executive Summary, 2005, s. 8 and 9.) ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 11
Zone of proximal development: «… is the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem-solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem-solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers» L.S.Vygotsky, 1978, page 86 ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 12
How do we teach metacognition Focusing on bridging the gap between the pupils and «the system» Using examples, which the pupils can relate to («relevant exercises») Talking about cognition and ways of learning (strategies), without having the answers. ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 13
How to choose a learning strategy? One important factor is: What is the goal with the exercise, or task? What is the pupil going to learn from it? The goal has to be concrete and understandable for the pupils, so that the pupils have a possibility to choose their best learning strategy, individually. ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 14
Being personal – but not private ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 15
References: Baddeley, Alan D. (1999). Essentials of Human Memory. Hove (UK): Psychological Press. Imsen, G. (2005). Elevenes verden. Innføring i pedagogisk psykologi. Universitetsforlaget. Matlin, M. W. (2009). Cognitive psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The definition and selection of key competencies, Executive Summary, 2005, internett: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/47/61/35070367.pdf Vygotsky, L.S. (1987). Mind in society. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. ©Iris S. Krokmyrdal, 2013 16
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