Presentation on theme: "Was the United States an imperialist nation at the turn of the 20 th century?"— Presentation transcript:
Was the United States an imperialist nation at the turn of the 20 th century?
China During the 1800s U.S. businessman and missionaries took an interest in China. In the late 1800s imperialist powers carved out “spheres of influence” – regions that were forced to grant them exclusive trade agreements and leases on land for military bases – in China. To obtain more influence in China, in 1899 the United States promoted the Open Door Policy, urging European nations to respect fair trade competition in China.
China Most Chinese were angered by foreigners’ lack of respect for Chinese culture and society and hoped to establish a strong independent government. In 1900 the Boxers, a Chinese nationalist movement, rebelled against foreign intervention, killed foreigners and destroyed buildings. The imperialist powers squashed the Boxer Rebellion. China continued to provide new markets and raw materials for U.S. and other foreign industry.
China “Today we are the poorest and weakest nation in the world and occupying the lowest position in international affairs. Other men are the carving knife and serving dish; we are the fish and the meat.” -- Sun Yat-sen, Chinese Nationalist “American policy will bring about permanent peace and safety to China, preserve Chinese territorial and administrative entity…and safeguard for the world the principle of equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese Empire.” - U.S. Secretary of State John Hay, 1900
Cuba From 1868 on, Cubans struggled for independence from Spain. Americans identified with Cuban resistance to Spanish colonial rule. Also, U.S. businesses sought control of Cuban cash crops such as sugar. In the 1890s, Jose Marti, a Cuban expatriate, gained support for the Cuban Revolution by gathering arms, money and men in New York City. In 1898, sparked by revolution in Cuba, and after the “Maine Incident,” the U.S. fought and won a short war against Spain, which led to the Spanish granting independence to Cuba.
Cuba Yellow journalism was a form of journalism that.... Following the Spanish-American War, President William McKinley set up a U.S. military government in Cuba. The U.S. insisted that the Platt Amendment– which restricted Cuban independence and gave the United States military rights— be part of the new Cuban constitution. In 1906 Cubans, seeking full independence, rebelled against the U.S. government. U.S. troops took control of the island, but eventually gave Cuba independence in 1909.
Cuba It is my duty to prevent, through the independence of Cuba, the United States from spreading over the West Indies and falling with added weight upon other lands of Our America. - Jose Marti, leader of the Cuban revolution against Spain The American people now produce $2 billion worth more than they consume, and we have met the emergency and by the providence of God, by the statesmanship of William McKinley, and the valor of Theodore Roosevelt…we have our markets in Cuba, in Puerto Rico, in the Philippines, and we stand in the presence of 800 million people with the Pacific and American lake…The world is ours. -Senator Chauncey M. Depew, Wall Street banker
Philippines In 1898 U.S. forces led by Emilio Aguinaldo defeated Spanish troops in the Philippines and eliminated Spanish rule there. After the Spanish- American War, Aguinaldo claimed he had been assured of Filipino independence, but his claims were denied by the United States.
Philippines President William McKinley decided to maintain U.S. control of the Philippines because he considered the Filipinos unfit for self- government and wanted to “uplift and civilize and Christianize them.” Filipinos rebelled against U.S. forces, but the revolt was crushed after a brutal three-year war.
Philippines The Philippines can be considered a vital link in a chain of military bases that will one day encircle the globe to protect American strategic and commercial interests. -Admiral Alfred T. Mahan, U.S. Navy We are planting in those islands imperishable ideas. We are planting the best traditions, the best characteristics of Americanism in such a way that they never can be removed from that soil. -Major General Arthur McArthur, U.S. military governor of the Philippines [Imperialism is justified as] the natural and necessary expansion of the superior Anglo-Saxon people. -Reverend Josiah Strong There are conclusive proofs that we had asked [Americans] for a promise of eventual independence. - Emilio Aguinaldo, Filipino resistance leader
Hawaii During the 1700s Hawaii became an important way station for American shippers, sailors, and whalers, and Protestant missionaries sought to Christianize the Hawaiians. Many Americans settled and became prosperous by planting cash crops such as sugar and pineapple. In 1891 Queen Liliuokalani came to power and tried to restore Hawaiian control of the islands.
Hawaii In 1893 white planters, aided by U.S. troops, organized a successful revolt against the queen. After the revolt, white planters, led by wealthy planter Sanford B. Dole, asked the U.S. Congress for U.S. annexation of Hawaii. In 1898, after the Spanish- American War, the U.S. annexed the Hawaiian islands. U.S. intervention resulted in long-lasting resentment among many native Hawaiians.
Hawaii A powerful Navy is essential to protect trade routes…. Hawai’i would be an important naval base in the Pacific. - Admiral Alfred T. Mahan, U.S. Navy The Hawaiian pear is fully ripe and this is the golden hour for the United States to pluck it. -John L. Stevens, U.S. minister to Hawai’i [The U.S. government must] channel the energies of Americans toward the expansion of trade abroad. Increased foreign trade will create jobs that might give ambitious people the same opportunity the frontier had once provided. -Frederick Jackson Turner
Panama In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine which told foreign nations to stay out of Latin America, staking claim to Latin American territories. After the Spanish-American War, the United States wanted to build a canal across Central America to allow warships to pass between the oceans and defend the newly acquired U.S. territories of Puerto Rico and the Philippines. The U.S. attempted to lease from Colombia and build a canal through Panama, then a possession of Columbia. The Colombian Senate rejected the offer.
Panama In 1903 U.S. naval forces assisted an armed rebellion of Panamanians overthrow Colombian rule. This was known as “gunboat diplomacy” The new Panamanian government immediately agreed to allow the United States to build the Panama Canal, which was completed in 1914. In 1921 the United States apologized and paid Colombia for the acquisition of the canal zone. American Experience: The Panama Canal (9:00-16:35 (7:35 minute clip))
Panama A powerful Navy is essential to protect trade routes. The United States government should build a canal across Central America. The canal will allow American ships to pass quickly between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. - Admiral Alfred T. Mahan, U.S. Navy I do not see why we should dig the canal if we are not to fortify it so as to insure its being used for ourselves and against our foes. -President Theodore Roosevelt