2 Outline The Renaissance The Northern Renaissance The Reformation Why Italy?Impact of Classical IdeasImpact on Art and LiteratureImpact on Political ThoughtThe Northern RenaissanceIdeas Spread NorthReform Movements in Western EuropeInfluence of PatronsImpact of the RenaissanceThe ReformationCriticism of ChurchMartin LutherHenry VII and Protestant EnglandJohn CalvinThe Catholic ReformationIgnatius of LoyolaCouncil of TrentLegacy of the Reformation
3 Why Italy? Renaissance, or rebirth of classical ideas, begins in Italy Rebirth of Greek and Roman worldsWhy?Thriving Urban city-states in perfect areas of tradeWealthy merchant classPatrons would order paintings and sculptures from artistsA heritage stemming from Roman Empire (and Greece)
4 Impact of Classical Ideas Study of classics leads to humanismMovement focusing on human potential and achievementsFocus on human ability pushes away from religion, making society more secularNew view of peopleBaldassare Castiglione’s The Courier describes the characteristics of a perfect Renaissance nobleMen were to be skilled in many areas, while women held little influence outside of art
5 Impact on Art and Literature Artists like the “Big Four” copied Greek and Roman style to portray religious subjectsWanted to perfect the human body through artFrancesco Petrarch – “Father” of Italian Renaissance humanismPoet and artist that wrote in Italian and LatinGiovanni Boccaccio – Known for his Decameron, wrote about the human experience
6 Impact on Political Thought Niccolo Machiavelli argued the human spirit in his book The PrinceSaid humans are inherently badThe best rulers think for the people, not themselvesVittoria Colonna expressed personal emotions of women of the time
7 Ideas Spread NorthFollowing plague and war, rulers and merchants in Northern Europe began to sponsor artistsArtists like Albrecht Durer, Hans Holbein, and Jan van Eyck attempt to illustrate everyday lives of nobles and poorJohann Gutenberg’s printing press (Early 1450s) helps spread Renaissance ideology
8 Reform Movements in Western Europe Christian HumanismRenaissance thinkers critical of failures of ChurchMost famous was Desiderius ErasmusWanted Christianity of heart, not ceremonyThomas More’s Utopia described a mythical land without war or greedWomen’s ReformsMost famous feminist is Christine de PizanWrote The Book of the City of Ladies, questioning difference in treatment of girls and boys
9 Influence of Patrons Elizabethan England William Shakespeare Elizabeth I encouraged Renaissance art and literatureAlso wrote and participated in movementWilliam ShakespeareMost famous writer of the Elizabethan AgeDrew from the classics for inspiration and plots
10 Impact of the Renaissance Changes in ArtFocus on perfecting the individualSecular and religious worksChanges in SocietyMore info available thanks to printing pressChristian humanists questioned how life should be livedQuestioning of political and social structures
11 Exit Slip Describe the relationship between Humanism and the Church Perfect Renaissance men were expected to do what?Perfect Renaissance women were expected to do what?
12 The Reformation: Criticism of the Church Reformation – movement for religious reformWhy?SocialHumanism led to secularism & questioning of ChurchSpread of ideas through printing pressPoliticalPope viewed as a foreign ruler and challenge to current monarchsEconomicPeople hated taxes to ChurchChurch wealth draws attention of monarchsReligiousChurch leaders corruptViewed as “too worldly”
13 Martin Luther Luther (1483-1546) Despised sale of indulgences German (Holy Roman Empire)Despised sale of indulgencesDonated money served as a pardon for sinClaimed you could not “buy” your way into HeavenOctober 31, 1519 – Luther posts 95 Theses on the door of the church in WittenbergCondemns Church practicesBegan to not only criticize the Church, but to actively teach change
14 Heresy or Legitimacy? At first, Church has no response to Luther 1521 – Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) declares Luther a heretic with Edict of WormsBy 1522, Luther’s followers are calling themselves Lutherans1524 – Peasant revolt in HRE, squashed by prince1529 – Two sides emerge (Pope supporters and those against him)Eventually, the princes protesting would be known as Protestants, or Christians that were not part of the Catholic Church
15 Luther’s WarCharles V (Holy Roman Emperor) not happy, declares war against ProtestantsWins in 1547, but cannot force them into Church1555 – Peace of Augsburg is signed, agreeing that German states can be Catholic or ProtestantCharles V forced to sign to stop fighting
16 Henry VIII and Protestant England King Henry VIII wanted to get an annulment (divorce) from his first wife, CatherineWanted a son1527 – Pope says “No”Thomas Cramer, head of the highest church court in England, said “yes” in May 1533Act of Supremacy of 1534 made the King head of the Church of EnglandNow has the power of the PopeStill followed mostly Catholic teachings, but Pope removed from authority in EnglandHenry would end up with two daughters (Mary, Elizabeth) and one son (Edward)
17 Henry VIII Consequences Following Henry VIII’s death in 1547, 9 year old Edward VI became ruler and the church moved in a more Protestant directionWeak and sick, passes away at 15Mary (Catholic) took over in 1553, she had 300 Protestants burned to death“Bloody Mary”Elizabeth (Protestant) continues her father’s work, with help of ParliamentSet up the Church of EnglandProtestants in England known as Anglicans
18 John CalvinCalvin ( ) took over movement begun by Huldrych Zwingli in SwitzerlandAgreed with Martin Luther in most areasSaid the ideal gov’t was a theocracy controlled by religious leadersDiffered with Luther in belief of predestinationSaid God determined in advance who would be saved and who would be condemnedCreated a powerful religious city in GenevaBy mid 1500s, Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the most popular form of ProtestantismInfluenced John Knox, who would later form the Presbyterian Church
19 Exit Slip How did Henry VIII impact the Reformation? How did Elizabeth I impact the Reformation?How did John Calvin impact the Reformation?
20 The Catholic Reformation: The Church Needs Change Ignatius of Loyola ( ) sought to change the image of the ChurchGained popularity through his book Spiritual Exercises, a daily devotionMade leader of Jesuits, or the Society of Jesus, by the Catholic ChurchSociety of Jesus goals:Founded schools throughout EuropeConvert non-Christians to CatholicismStop the spread of Protestantism
21 Council of Trent Pope Paul III (1534-1549) Began InquisitionCreated JesuitsCalled for council of Church leaders to meet in Trent, ItalyBetween , Council of Trent makes several changes to ChurchBanned selling of indulgencesChurch was ultimate authority on the Bible – anyone else was a hereticFaith and good works were needed for salvation, not just faith
22 Legacy of the Reformation Religious and Social Effects:Protestant churches flourishCatholic Church more unifiedMore focus on educationPolitical Effects:Catholic Church power declines, modern nations begin to emerge
23 Exit Slip What was the significance of Ignatius of Loyola? List one of the three goals of the Society of JesusWhat was the purpose of the Council of Trent?