Presentation on theme: "Renaissance and Reformation. Outline The Renaissance – Why Italy? – Impact of Classical Ideas – Impact on Art and Literature – Impact on Political Thought."— Presentation transcript:
Renaissance and Reformation
Outline The Renaissance – Why Italy? – Impact of Classical Ideas – Impact on Art and Literature – Impact on Political Thought The Northern Renaissance – Ideas Spread North – Reform Movements in Western Europe – Influence of Patrons – Impact of the Renaissance The Reformation – Criticism of Church – Martin Luther – Henry VII and Protestant England – John Calvin The Catholic Reformation – Ignatius of Loyola – Council of Trent – Legacy of the Reformation
Why Italy? Renaissance, or rebirth of classical ideas, begins in Italy – Rebirth of Greek and Roman worlds Why? – Thriving Urban city-states in perfect areas of trade – Wealthy merchant class Patrons would order paintings and sculptures from artists – A heritage stemming from Roman Empire (and Greece)
Impact of Classical Ideas Study of classics leads to humanism – Movement focusing on human potential and achievements Focus on human ability pushes away from religion, making society more secular New view of people – Baldassare Castiglione’s The Courier describes the characteristics of a perfect Renaissance noble – Men were to be skilled in many areas, while women held little influence outside of art
Impact on Art and Literature Artists like the “Big Four” copied Greek and Roman style to portray religious subjects – Wanted to perfect the human body through art Francesco Petrarch – “Father” of Italian Renaissance humanism – Poet and artist that wrote in Italian and Latin Giovanni Boccaccio – Known for his Decameron, wrote about the human experience
Impact on Political Thought Niccolo Machiavelli argued the human spirit in his book The Prince – Said humans are inherently bad – The best rulers think for the people, not themselves Vittoria Colonna expressed personal emotions of women of the time
Ideas Spread North Following plague and war, rulers and merchants in Northern Europe began to sponsor artists Artists like Albrecht Durer, Hans Holbein, and Jan van Eyck attempt to illustrate everyday lives of nobles and poor Johann Gutenberg’s printing press (Early 1450s) helps spread Renaissance ideology
Reform Movements in Western Europe Christian Humanism – Renaissance thinkers critical of failures of Church – Most famous was Desiderius Erasmus – Wanted Christianity of heart, not ceremony – Thomas More’s Utopia described a mythical land without war or greed Women’s Reforms – Most famous feminist is Christine de Pizan – Wrote The Book of the City of Ladies, questioning difference in treatment of girls and boys
Influence of Patrons Elizabethan England – Elizabeth I encouraged Renaissance art and literature – Also wrote and participated in movement William Shakespeare – Most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age – Drew from the classics for inspiration and plots
Impact of the Renaissance Changes in Art – Focus on perfecting the individual – Secular and religious works Changes in Society – More info available thanks to printing press – Christian humanists questioned how life should be lived – Questioning of political and social structures
Exit Slip Describe the relationship between Humanism and the Church Perfect Renaissance men were expected to do what? Perfect Renaissance women were expected to do what?
The Reformation: Criticism of the Church Reformation – movement for religious reform Why? – Social Humanism led to secularism & questioning of Church Spread of ideas through printing press – Political Pope viewed as a foreign ruler and challenge to current monarchs – Economic People hated taxes to Church Church wealth draws attention of monarchs – Religious Church leaders corrupt Viewed as “too worldly”
Martin Luther Luther ( ) – German (Holy Roman Empire) Despised sale of indulgences – Donated money served as a pardon for sin – Claimed you could not “buy” your way into Heaven October 31, 1519 – Luther posts 95 Theses on the door of the church in Wittenberg – Condemns Church practices – Began to not only criticize the Church, but to actively teach change
Heresy or Legitimacy? At first, Church has no response to Luther 1521 – Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) declares Luther a heretic with Edict of Worms By 1522, Luther’s followers are calling themselves Lutherans 1524 – Peasant revolt in HRE, squashed by prince 1529 – Two sides emerge (Pope supporters and those against him) – Eventually, the princes protesting would be known as Protestants, or Christians that were not part of the Catholic Church
Luther’s War Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) not happy, declares war against Protestants – Wins in 1547, but cannot force them into Church 1555 – Peace of Augsburg is signed, agreeing that German states can be Catholic or Protestant – Charles V forced to sign to stop fighting
Henry VIII and Protestant England King Henry VIII wanted to get an annulment (divorce) from his first wife, Catherine – Wanted a son – 1527 – Pope says “No” Thomas Cramer, head of the highest church court in England, said “yes” in May 1533 Act of Supremacy of 1534 made the King head of the Church of England – Now has the power of the Pope Still followed mostly Catholic teachings, but Pope removed from authority in England Henry would end up with two daughters (Mary, Elizabeth) and one son (Edward)
Henry VIII Consequences Following Henry VIII’s death in 1547, 9 year old Edward VI became ruler and the church moved in a more Protestant direction – Weak and sick, passes away at 15 Mary (Catholic) took over in 1553, she had 300 Protestants burned to death – “Bloody Mary” Elizabeth (Protestant) continues her father’s work, with help of Parliament – Set up the Church of England – Protestants in England known as Anglicans
John Calvin Calvin ( ) took over movement begun by Huldrych Zwingli in Switzerland – Agreed with Martin Luther in most areas – Said the ideal gov’t was a theocracy controlled by religious leaders Differed with Luther in belief of predestination – Said God determined in advance who would be saved and who would be condemned Created a powerful religious city in Geneva – By mid 1500s, Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the most popular form of Protestantism Influenced John Knox, who would later form the Presbyterian Church
Exit Slip How did Henry VIII impact the Reformation? How did Elizabeth I impact the Reformation? How did John Calvin impact the Reformation?
The Catholic Reformation: The Church Needs Change Ignatius of Loyola ( ) sought to change the image of the Church – Gained popularity through his book Spiritual Exercises, a daily devotion – Made leader of Jesuits, or the Society of Jesus, by the Catholic Church Society of Jesus goals: – Founded schools throughout Europe – Convert non-Christians to Catholicism – Stop the spread of Protestantism
Council of Trent Pope Paul III ( ) – Began Inquisition – Created Jesuits – Called for council of Church leaders to meet in Trent, Italy Between , Council of Trent makes several changes to Church – Banned selling of indulgences – Church was ultimate authority on the Bible – anyone else was a heretic – Faith and good works were needed for salvation, not just faith
Legacy of the Reformation Religious and Social Effects: – Protestant churches flourish – Catholic Church more unified – More focus on education Political Effects: – Catholic Church power declines, modern nations begin to emerge
Exit Slip What was the significance of Ignatius of Loyola? List one of the three goals of the Society of Jesus What was the purpose of the Council of Trent?