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UHS 3052 LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION Contingency theories of leadership 2 NUR SYUHADA & SITI SARA NORFAZILAH & HAZARINA KHAIRUNNISA & IZZATI.

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Presentation on theme: "UHS 3052 LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION Contingency theories of leadership 2 NUR SYUHADA & SITI SARA NORFAZILAH & HAZARINA KHAIRUNNISA & IZZATI."— Presentation transcript:

1 UHS 3052 LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION Contingency theories of leadership 2 NUR SYUHADA & SITI SARA NORFAZILAH & HAZARINA KHAIRUNNISA & IZZATI

2 Multiple-Linkage Model (developed by Yulk)  The managerial behavior and situational variables determine the performance of organization. Leader Intervening Group behavior variables performance Situational variables influence at three points: 1)Constraints managerial behavior and moderate its effects. 2)Directly influence intervening variables. 3)Determine the relative importance of the intervening variables.

3 2.Ability and Role Clarity Understand their job responsibility well 2.Ability and Role Clarity Understand their job responsibility well 4.Cooperation and Mutual Trust -Sharing information and ideas, helping each other 4.Cooperation and Mutual Trust -Sharing information and ideas, helping each other 6.External Coordination Work unit activities are in line with the interdependent activities of the parts of the organization and other organization 6.External Coordination Work unit activities are in line with the interdependent activities of the parts of the organization and other organization 3.Organization of the Work Use effective performance strategies 3.Organization of the Work Use effective performance strategies 1.Task Commitment --Struggle to attain high performance and commits to tack objectives 1.Task Commitment --Struggle to attain high performance and commits to tack objectives These variable interact with each other to determine the effectiveness of a group or organizational subunit 5.Resources and Support Other units also provide necessary resources and information needed to do work 5.Resources and Support Other units also provide necessary resources and information needed to do work

4 Situational Influences on Intervening Variables The situation can influence the intervening variables independently of anything done by leader Two situational variable that can influence task commitment 1.Formal Reward System - Provides attractive rewards dependent on performance 1.Formal Reward System - Provides attractive rewards dependent on performance 2. Intrinsically Motivating Properties of the Work itself - Provide work requires varied skills is interesting and challenging, and provides automatic performance 2. Intrinsically Motivating Properties of the Work itself - Provide work requires varied skills is interesting and challenging, and provides automatic performance

5 Situational Variables Affect the Ability of Group Members

6 2.Ability and Role Clarity Affected by task structure, prior member experience and external dependencies Simple task, easier to understand 2.Ability and Role Clarity Affected by task structure, prior member experience and external dependencies Simple task, easier to understand 4.Cooperation and Mutual Trust Influenced by the size of the group, members similarity values and background, reward system and the organization of the work 4.Cooperation and Mutual Trust Influenced by the size of the group, members similarity values and background, reward system and the organization of the work 6.External Coordination Affected by the formal structure of the organization, High lateral interdependence increases the amount of coordination needed among subunit of an organization. 6.External Coordination Affected by the formal structure of the organization, High lateral interdependence increases the amount of coordination needed among subunit of an organization. 3.Organization of the Work Affected by type of technology used to do the work and the competitive strategy of the organization 3.Organization of the Work Affected by type of technology used to do the work and the competitive strategy of the organization 1.Task Commitment Providing effective recruiting and selection procedures and high salaries is more likely to attract qualified people with high ability 1.Task Commitment Providing effective recruiting and selection procedures and high salaries is more likely to attract qualified people with high ability 5.Resources and Support Influenced by the organization’s budgetary system, inventory system, changes in policy 5.Resources and Support Influenced by the organization’s budgetary system, inventory system, changes in policy

7 Short-Term Actions 1.Task Commitment Committed 1.Task Commitment Committed 2.Ability and Role Clarity Clear confusion 2.Ability and Role Clarity Clear confusion 3.Organization of the Work Matching people with task 3.Organization of the Work Matching people with task 4.Cooperation and Mutual Trust Involvement of group members 4.Cooperation and Mutual Trust Involvement of group members 6.External Coordination Seek assistance from outsider 6.External Coordination Seek assistance from outsider 5.Resources and Support Seek and provide enough resources 5.Resources and Support Seek and provide enough resources

8 Long-Term actions Modifying formal structure of the work unit Alter culture of the organization Initiate long- term improvement programs Initiate profitable activities Gain control over demand for the unit’s product and services Gain control over acquisition of resources

9 Evaluation of the Multiple-Linkage Model First contingency theories to emphasize leadership processes at the group level Weakness :  Not specify how different types of leader behavior interact with each other in their effect on intervening variable  Long –term actions of managers are too general-specific hypothesis are needed  Fails to identify common interaction among situational variable  Thus, this model is still more a general (theoretical) framework than a refined (experienced) theory  Based on few studies made on leader behavior found that situational variables yielded weak, inconsistence result

10 COGNITIVE RESOURCES THEORY, by Fiedler et. All Deal Cognitive Abilities of Leaders Cognitive Resources - Intelligence - Experience Related to the group performance Performance of Leader Group Determined by Complex Interaction Leader Traits - Intelligence - experience Type of Leader Behavior - Directive leadership Leadership Situation Aspects -interpersonal stress - Nature of the group’s task

11 Cognitive Resources Theory Propositions Interpersonal stress Nature of group task

12 A.Interpersonal Stress 1. Relation between Leader Intelligence and Subordinate’s Performance Under Low Stress - High intelligence - Goods plan and decisions - Leader relies on intellectual ability to analyze the problem and find the best solution Under High Stress - No relationship between intelligence and decision quality - That stress interferes with information processing and decision making - Leader being distracted and unable to focus on the task

13 2. Relationship between Leader Experience and Subordinate Performance Under High Stress - Positively related to the quality of leader decisions Under Low Stress - Not related to the decision quality

14 A Leader’s Cognitive Resources and Group Performance - Intelligent leaders devise better plans and action strategies for doing the work, especially when the task is complex - Leader’s plans and decisions are communicated to subordinates through directive behavior B. Nature of Group Task

15 Research On Cognitive Resources Theory Study of Coast Guard officer and study of fire department officers A creative task  Under low stress conditions, intelligence was positively related to the production of creative ideas by leaders and followers alike, and the more intelligent leaders had more productive groups  Under high stress conditions, leader intelligence was not related to the production of creative ideas by followers Intellectual ability is related more to performance for directive leaders

16 Limitations of the Research Results from the validation research are inconsistent Methodological problems make it difficult to interpret some of the results Some aspects of the theory have not been adequately tested

17 Conceptual Weaknesses No explicit rationale is provided for use of general intelligence rather than specific cognitive skills - It should identifying specific aspects of intellectual ability relevant to the task There is only one leadership behavior, its to general to capture the complexities on participative leadership - More precise explanation of the influence of cognitive resources on leader behavior and effectiveness should be concern

18 General Evaluation Of Contingency Theories

19 Contingency theory Leader traitsLeader behaviorSituational variables Intervening variables Validation results LPC Contingency Model LPC ScoreNoneTask structure L-M relations NoneMany studies, some support Path-Goal TheoryNoneInstrumental, supportive, participative, achievement Many aspectsExpectancies, valences, role ambiguity Many studies, some support Situational Leadership Theory NoneTask and relationsSubordinate maturity NoneFew studies, few studies, little support Leadership Substitutes Theory NoneInstrumental, supportive Many aspectsNoneFew studies, few studies, inconclusive Multiple-linkage Model NoneMany aspects Effort, ability, organization, teamwork, resources, external coordination Few studies, few studies, inconclusive Normative cognitive Resources Theory Intelligence & experience DirectiveStress, group ability Nonesome support Decision TheoryNoneDecision procedures Many aspectsDecision quality and acceptance Many studies, good support

20 Evaluation of Research on Situational Theories Type of situational effect – High level of the situational variable will reduce the impact of leader behavior on the dependent variable – Situational variable that make leader behavior more effective but do not directly influence the dependent variable – Subordinate is more likely treated as a mediator than as moderator

21 APPLICATION FOR ADAPTIVE LEADERSHIP Maintain situational awareness Use more planning for long and complex task Consult more with people who have relevant knowledge Provide more direction to people with interdependent rules Provide more direction and briefings when a crisis occurs Monitor a critical task or unreliable person more closely Provide more coaching to an inexperienced subordinates Be more supportive to someone with a highly stressful task

22 ABSTRACT Early contingency theories of effective leadership such as LPC Contingency model, Path-Goal theory, Situational Leadership theory, Leadership Substitutes theory, Multiple-Linkage model, Cognitive Resources theory, and Normative Decision theory can be guideline for leader to be more effective by adopt it in the organization’s situation that leader are in. Even though the contingency theories have limitation that have been questioned by many researchers about their utilities, but the contingency theories are play important role to serve leaders that is essential to monitor changes in the situation and adjust their behavior in appropriate ways.

23 REFERENCES Website 0/Fiedler.pdf 0/Fiedler.pdf model.htm model.htm ngency_theory.htm ngency_theory.htm /works/fied.htm /works/fied.htm

24 Books Adv Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 1, edited by Leonard Berkowitz, page 149, A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness, Fred E Fiedler Gary Yukl. (2010),Leadership in Organizations, Seventh Edition, Early contingency theories of Effective Leadership, Pg

25 Journal Edström, Anders (1977), User Influence and the Success of MIS Projects: A Contingency Approach, Human Relations, 30(7), Franz, Charles R. (1985), User Leadership in the Systems Development Life Cycle: A Contingency Model, Journal of Management Information Systems, 2 (2), 5

26 THE END


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