Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Chapter 3 Contingency Approaches. 2 Chapter Objectives Understand how leadership is often contingent on people and situations. Apply Fiedlers contingency.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 3 Contingency Approaches. 2 Chapter Objectives Understand how leadership is often contingent on people and situations. Apply Fiedlers contingency."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 3 Contingency Approaches

2 2 Chapter Objectives Understand how leadership is often contingent on people and situations. Apply Fiedlers contingency model to key relationships among leader style, situational favorability, and group task performance. Apply Hersey and Blanchards situational theory of leader style to the level of follower readiness. Explain the path-goal theory of leadership. Use the Vroom-Jago model to identify the correct amount of follower participation in specific decision situations. Know how to use the power of situational variables to substitute for or neutralize the need for leadership.

3 3 Ex. 3.1 Comparing the Universalistic and Contingency Approaches to Leadership Universalistic Approach Contingency Approach Followers Leader Situation Leadership Traits/behaviors Style Traits Behavior Position Needs Maturity Training Cohesion Task Structure Systems Env. Outcomes (Performance, satisfaction, etc.) Outcomes (Performance, satisfaction, etc.)

4 4 Contingency Approaches Contingency approaches : approaches that seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively Fiedlers contingency model : a model designed to diagnose whether a leader is task-oriented or relationship- oriented and match leader style to the situation

5 5 Ex. 3.2 Metacategories of Leader Behavior and Four Leader Styles High Task-Low Relationship High Task-High Relationship Low Task-Low Relationship High Relationship -Low Task Low High LowHigh RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR TASK BEHAVIOR

6 6 Situational Theory Hersey and Blanchards extension of the Leadership Grid focusing on the characteristics of followers as the important element of the situation, and consequently, of determining effective leader behavior

7 7 Ex. 3.4 Hersey and Blanchards Situational Theory of Leadership Follower CharacteristicsAppropriate Leader Style Low readiness level Moderate readiness level High readiness level Very high readiness level Telling (high task-low relationship) Selling (high task-high relationship) Participating (low task-high rel.) Delegating (low task-low relationship)

8 8 Path-Goal Theory A contingency approach to leadership in which the leaders responsibility is to increase subordinates motivation by clarifying the behaviors necessary for task accomplishment and rewards

9 9 Ex. 3.5 Leader Roles in the Path- Goal Model Path Clarification Increase Rewards Leader defines what follower must do to attain work outcomes Leader clarifies followers work role Follower has increased knowledge & confidence to accomplish outcomes Leader learns followers needs Leader matches followers needs to rewards if work outcomes are accomplished Leader increases value of work outcomes for follower Follower displays increased effort and motivation Organizational work outcomes are accomplished

10 10 Ex. 3.6 Path-Goal Situations and Preferred Leader Behaviors SituationLeader BehaviorImpact on FollowerOutcome Supportive Leadership Directive Leadership Achievement- Oriented Leadership Participative Leadership Followers lack self-confidence Ambiguous job Lack of job challenge Incorrect reward Increases confidence to achieve work outcomes Clarifies path to reward Set and strive for high goals Clarifies followers needs to change rewards Increased effort; improved satisfaction and performance

11 11 The Vroom-Jago Contingency Model A contingency model that focuses on varying degrees of participative leadership, and how each level of participation influences quality and accountability of decisions

12 12 Ex. 3.7 Five Leader Decision Styles Area of Influence by Leader Area of Freedom for Group DecideConsult Individually Consult Group Facilitate Delegate

13 13 Substitute and Neutralizer Substitute : a situational variable that makes leadership unnecessary or redundant Neutralizer : a situational characteristic that counteracts the leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors

14 14 Ex Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership Variable Task-Oriented Leadership People- Oriented Leadership Organizational variables Group cohesiveness Formalization Inflexibility Low positional power Physical separation Substitutes for Neutralizes Substitutes for No effect on Neutralizes Task characteristics Highly struct. task Automatic feedback Intrinsic satisfaction Substitutes for No effect on Substitutes for Follower characteristics Professionalism Training/experience Low value of rewards Substitutes for Neutralizes Substitutes for No effect on Neutralizes


Download ppt "1 Chapter 3 Contingency Approaches. 2 Chapter Objectives Understand how leadership is often contingent on people and situations. Apply Fiedlers contingency."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google