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Cancer of the GI System. Esophageal cancer Pathogenesis: Rare Secondary to infiltration/structure alteration Most common at gastroesophageal junction.

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Presentation on theme: "Cancer of the GI System. Esophageal cancer Pathogenesis: Rare Secondary to infiltration/structure alteration Most common at gastroesophageal junction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cancer of the GI System

2 Esophageal cancer Pathogenesis: Rare Secondary to infiltration/structure alteration Most common at gastroesophageal junction Ulceration Exposure to irritant – long-term

3 Esophageal cancer Manifestation: Early stage asymptomatic Chest pain or dysphagia Pyrosis Radiating pain

4 Esophageal cancer Treatment: Reflux prevention Primary lesion removal Radiation Chemotherapy If malignancy wide spread – palliative care

5 Gastric cancer X-RAY OF A STOMACH CANCER 2% of all new cancers diagnosed in USA annual deaths Causes: ◦ Infection with H.Pylori ◦ Dietary salt ◦ Pickled food ◦ Food additives

6 Gastric cancer Pathogenesis: Begins in glands of mucosa 50% are in prepyloric antrum Precursors: gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or duodenal reflux

7 Gastric cancer Manifestation ◦ Early stages asymptomatic ◦ Loss of appetite ◦ Malaise ◦ Upper abdominal pain/vomiting Treatment ◦ Surgery ◦ Chemotherapy ◦ Radiation

8 Colon and rectal cancer Third most common cancer in the USA 78% colon 28% rectum Small intestine cancers are rare Anal carcinoma less then 1%

9 Colon and rectal cancer Pathogenesis: Genetic factors Environmental factors Polyps Diet low in grains, fruits, vegetables Low physical activity Frequent constipation/prolonged contact of fecal mass with colon mucosa

10 Colon and rectal cancer Clinical manifestation: Descending colon: obstruction Ascending colon: polypoid, pain, red stools, anemia, palpable Rectal carcinoma: spread to nearby structures (i.e. prostate or bladder).

11 Cancer and rectal cancer Evaluation ◦ Screenings (i.e. colonoscopy) Treatment/prevention ◦ Proper diet ◦ Diagnostic and surgery ◦ Radiation before surgery ◦ Chemotherapy

12 Liver cancer Fifth most common cancer in the U.S. Third leading cause of death worldwide Mostly metastasis from primary cancer Risk factors: HBV/HCV infections, cirrhosis, mycotoxin exposure, heavy smoking and ETOH consumption

13 Liver cancer Pathogenesis: Hepatocellular carcinoma: primary cancer, associated with cirrhosis Cholangiocellular carcinoma: most prevalent in Asian populations. Caused by parasitic infection or mechanical damage.

14 Liver cancer Manifestation ◦ Vague abdominal symptoms ◦ Nausea/ vomiting/ fullness feeling ◦ Pain or jaundice Treatment ◦ Surgical lobe removal when possible ◦ Thermal ablation ◦ Liver transplant

15 Gallbladder cancer Rare but lethal Common in the ages years Obesity risk factor Greater risk by natives Americans Mostly caused by metastasis Primary cancer due to cholecistits

16 Gallbladder cancer Manifestations ◦ Steady right upper quadrant pain ◦ Loss of appetite/ diarrhea/ weakness/ ◦ Obstructive jaundice Treatment ◦ Surgical resection ◦ Chemotherapy mostly palliative

17 Pancreas cancer Fourth most common cause of death in U.S. men(cancer capture on X-ray below):

18 Pancreas cancer Pothogenesis ◦ Arise often from exocrine cells ◦ Genetic – growths factors overexpressed in ductal cancer ◦ Can occur in head, body, or tail ◦ Often causes metastasis to the liver Clinical Manifestations ◦ Generally asymptomatic till obstruction occurs ◦ Jaundice ◦ Weight loss Treatment ◦ Pancreatectomy and chemotherapy


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