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Alterations of the GI Tract. Clinical Manifestations of GI Dysfunction Anorexia Vomiting Constipation Diarrhea GI Bleeding.

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Presentation on theme: "Alterations of the GI Tract. Clinical Manifestations of GI Dysfunction Anorexia Vomiting Constipation Diarrhea GI Bleeding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alterations of the GI Tract

2 Clinical Manifestations of GI Dysfunction Anorexia Vomiting Constipation Diarrhea GI Bleeding

3 Disorders of Motility Dysphagia ◦ Defined as difficulty swallowing, and can result from mechanical obstruction or a functional disorder that impairs esophageal motility.

4 Disorders of Motility Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) ◦ GERD “is the reflux of chyme from the stomach to the esophagus” (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1458).

5 Disorders of Motility Hiatal Hernia ◦ A type of diaphragmatic hernia in which the upper portion of the stomach herniates up through the diaphragm into the thorax (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1459).

6 Disorders of Motility Pyloric Obstruction ◦ Defined as the narrowing or blocking of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1460).

7 Disorders of Motility Intestinal Obstruction and Ileus ◦ “Caused by any condition that prevents the normal flow of chyme through the intestinal lumen or failure of normal intestinal motility in the absence of an obstructing lesion” (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1460).

8 Gastritis Two Types ◦ Acute ◦ Chronic

9 Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) Three Types ◦ Duodenal Ulcers ◦ Gastric Ulcers ◦ Stress-Related Mucosal Disease Postgastrectomy Syndrome

10 Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) Duodenal Ulcers ◦ Greatest frequency of any PUD. ◦ Possible association with type “O” blood. Duodenal Ulcer

11 Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) Gastric Ulcers ◦ Occur in populations between ages ◦ One fourth as common as duodenal ulcers ◦ Symptoms similar to duodenal ulcers. H. pylori

12 Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) Stress Related Mucosal Disease ◦ Acute peptic ulcer disease associated with physiologic stress. ◦ Three Categories  Ischemic Ulcers  Curling Ulcer  Cushing Ulcer

13 Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) Postgastrectomy Syndromes ◦ Dumping Syndrome ◦ Alkaline Reflux Gastritis ◦ Afferent Loop Obstruction ◦ Diarrhea ◦ Weight Loss ◦ Anemia

14 Malabsorption Syndromes Pancreatic insufficiency Lactase Deficiency Bile Salt Deficiency

15 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Five Types ◦ Ulcerative Colitis ◦ Crohn’s Disease ◦ Diverticular Disease of the Colon ◦ Appendicitis ◦ Irritable Bowel Syndrome

16 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Ulcerative Colitis ◦ “Chronic inflammatory disease that causes ulceration of the colonic mucosa and extends proximally from the rectum into the colon” (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1471).

17 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Crohn’s Disease “An idiopathic inflammatory disorder that affects any part of the [GI] tract from the mouth to the anus” (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1473).

18 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Diverticular Disease of the Colon “Herniations or saclike outpouchings of the mucosa through the muscle layers of the colonic wall” (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1474). Two Types Diverticulosis (Asymptomatic) Diverticulitis (Symptomatic)

19 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Appendicitis ◦ “An inflammation of the vermiform appendix, which is a projection from the apex of the cecum” (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1475).

20 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) ◦ Is a nonspecific disorder describing an inflammation of the GI tract related to life circumstances behaviors or dietary intolerances.

21 Disorders of Nutrition Obesity Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Starvation

22 Disorders of Nutrition Obesity ◦ Defined as having a body mass index greater than 30 (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1477).

23 Disorders of Nutrition Anorexia Nervosa ◦ An obsessive compulsive psychiatric disorder revolving around weight and food intake (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1480).

24 Disorders of Nutrition Bulimia Nervosa ◦ More common than anorexia nervosa. ◦ Affects the same population ◦ Body weight remains near normal with aspirations of weight loss (McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S., 2010, p 1481).

25 Disorders of Nutrition Starvation ◦ Short Term ◦ Long Term

26 The End


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