2Peptic ulcer diseaseA peptic ulcer is a break in the inner lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. A peptic ulcer of the stomach is called a gastric ulcer; of the duodenum, a duodenal ulcer; and of the esophagus, an esophageal ulcer. Peptic ulcers occur when the lining of these organs is corroded by the acidic digestive (peptic) juices which are secreted by the cells of the stomach.
3Peptic ulcer disease Signs and symptoms: abdominal pain, classically epigastric with severity relating to mealtimes, after around three hours of taking a meal (duodenal ulcers are classically relieved by food, while gastric ulcers are exacerbated by it)bloating and abdominal fullness;Acid refluxnausea, and vomiting;loss of appetite and weight losshematemesis (vomiting of blood); this can occur due to bleeding directly from a gastric ulcer, or from damage to the esophagus from severe/continuing vomiting.
4Peptic ulcer disease Diagnosis: The diagnosis is mainly established based on the characteristic symptoms. Stomach pain is usually the first signal of a peptic ulcer. In some cases, doctors may treat ulcers without diagnosing them with specific tests and observe whether the symptoms resolve, thus indicating that their primary diagnosis was accurate.Confirmation of the diagnosis is either by an upper intestinal endoscopy, which allows direct examination of the ulcer through a fiberoptic instrument (endoscope), or by a barium x-ray of the stomach. With endoscopy, a biopsy is usually obtained of a gastric ulcer.
5Peptic ulcer disease Treatment: If the peptic ulcer caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria, treatment with antibiotic medicines to kill the bacteria.If ulcer is caused by the use of drugs , stop using them.Medicines that reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach are used to treat all forms of peptic ulcer disease.Lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking and not drinking too much alcohol, are important for helping ulcers heal.Because the medicines now used to treat peptic ulcer disease work so well, surgery is rarely used to treat peptic ulcer disease. Surgery generally is reserved for people who have a life-threatening complication of an ulcer, such as severe bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.
6Peptic ulcer disease Prevention: Stop smoking. Eat a high fiber diet Avoid food that irritates the stomach.Avoid alcohol.Avoid caffeine.Avoid aspirin.Avoid anti-inflammatory medications:IbuprofenNaproxenKetoprofenEat small meals more frequently.