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Diet, Disease, and Digestion Eva Murdoch, PhD Assistant Professor, Anatomy and Physiology Department of Natural Sciences Joliet Junior College.

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Presentation on theme: "Diet, Disease, and Digestion Eva Murdoch, PhD Assistant Professor, Anatomy and Physiology Department of Natural Sciences Joliet Junior College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diet, Disease, and Digestion Eva Murdoch, PhD Assistant Professor, Anatomy and Physiology Department of Natural Sciences Joliet Junior College

2 Organs of the Digestive System 1.Gastrointestinal tract (GI): mouth, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine 2.Accessory organs: salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas

3 Functions of the GI tract and Accessory Organs GI tract: continuous muscular tube which passes, digests, and absorbs food molecules, and eliminates the indigestible residue Accessory organs: release digestive juices into the muscular tubule, and aid in the breakdown of nutrients

4 Digestive System Living organisms must obtain nutrients from their environment to sustain life The digestive system breaks down large nutrient molecules to small nutrient molecules that all body cells can then use to: – Synthesize ATP (cells energy supply) – Perform structural maintenance, repair and support growth

5 Digesting and Absorbing Nutrients Salivary glands, pancreas and liver help with the digestion of large food molecules to small molecules by secreting enzymes Digestion Absorption – Carbs monosacchrides blood – Fats fatty acids blood – Proteins amino acids blood

6 Cell Metabolism All chemical reactions that occur in a cell – Synthesis of ATP – Synthesis of new organic molecules, and other cell functions that require ATP

7 Nutrient Molecules 1.Carbohydrates / Sugars Function: short-term energy supply4 Cal / 1 gram (calories are a unit of energy) Found in: grains (wheat, rice, oats, corn), fruits, veggies

8 2.Lipids / Fats – Function: energy reserve, padding, insulation 9 Cal / 1 gram – Found in: nuts, red meat, milk, eggs, butter

9 3.Proteins – Functions: enzymes, hormones, muscle, last resort for energy 4 Cal / 1 gram – Found in: meat, nuts, beans, dairy, eggs

10 Diet Pyramid

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12 Disease GERD – gastro-esophageal (acid) reflux disease – Cause: stomach acid in the esophagus, due to weak esophageal sphincter – Pathology: erosion of esophageal tissue pain – Treatment: largely preventable by changes in lifestyle, medication, surgery

13 Stomach ulcer – Cause: inflammation due to H. pylori infection – Pathology: bleeding in stomach – Treatment: antiacid, antibiotics, anti- inflammatories Stomach cancer – Cause: H. pylori infection, genetics – Pathology: abnormal growth (tumor) in stomach tissue – Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy

14 Colon polyp – Cause: irritable bowl syndrome (IBS) history – Pathology: abnormal growth, rectal bleeding – Treatment: surgery

15 Colon Cancer (3 rd most commonly diagnosed cancer) – Cause: genetic, polyps, diet, smoking, excessive drinking – Pathology: uncontrolled cell growth in colon, rectal bleeding – Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy

16 Liver cirrhosis –Cause: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis C infection –Pathology: liver cells (hepatocytes) are replaced by fibroblasts (cells found in tendons, cant perform liver functions) –Treatment: liver transplant

17 Pancreatic Cancer – Cause: genetics, age, smoking, diet, diabetes – Pathology: mutations in the pancreatic cell and tumor growth – Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy

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