Presentation on theme: "Response to Intervention. Why care about RtI? Reason 1 Schools are about the business of teaching students skills To be life-long learners To lead productive."— Presentation transcript:
Response to Intervention
Why care about RtI? Reason 1 Schools are about the business of teaching students skills To be life-long learners To lead productive adult lives
Why care about RtI? Reason 2 NCLB: all students must demonstrate proficiency on math and English language arts by the end of the school year RtI reasearch indicates that 94-98% of all students can meet grade level benchmarks when provided with appropriate general education intervention
Why care about RtI? Reason 3 RtI supports quality implementation of special education via Special education being part of a districts overall intervention process Assistance with child find Alternative approach to SLD identification May reduce the need for traditional standardized testing May assist in timely ID of suspected disability May assist in adverse impact determinations Progress monitoring and problem solving strategies
What is RTI? A tiered model that is used in place of the established discrepancy model for determining interventions for students struggling in school It is a model that relies on data-based decision making CBM provides a portion of the data needed to change instruction and intervention Identifying and providing high quality instruction and research-based interventions matched to student needs
What is RTI A district-wide process All buildings/grade levels will participate in the process Identifies students Not achieving to benchmark standards And/or whose behavior is affecting educational performance Uses a problem solving framework to address learning needs
RtI Core Principles Commit to effectively teaching all children Intervene early Support learning with a systematic multi-tier service delivery model Use a problem-solving model to make instructional/intervention decisions Use scientific, research-based interventions Monitor student progress to inform instruction Use data to make decisions Use assessment for three different purposes
RTI Core Principles and Components If we do this: Use research-based, scientifically validated tiers of instruction and intervention Scientifically based screening and progress monitoring to inform instruction and intervention Use of data in the decision making process We can get this: Prevention and Early Intervention Problem solving is building a better support system for general education Every student is everyones responsibility
RTI Tiers Tier 2 15% Tier 1 80% Tier 3 5%
Tier 1 Students with no supplemental interventions needed All students in all settings Preventive and Proactive Tier 2 Students who are at-risk and need supplemental interventions Generally small group instruction with additional or different curricula Some students High efficiency, rapid response Tier 3 Students who are highly at risk and need intensive interventions Generally one-on-one instruction Can be, but not necessarily special education students Assessment-based, high intensity Generally of a longer duration
We've started the intervention, whats next? Stay the course If a student is successful, keep them in program as it is If you think the student is ready to transition back to Tier 1 only services, gradually reduce the intervention and closely monitor their progress If the student begins to have trouble again, go back to what was working If they are doing well with no additional intervention services needed let them go back to Tier 1 only
RTI Requires schools to use research-based curricula and intervention strategies at all levels Be warned- many curriculums will call themselves research-based, but in fact are not
Which research is good? Research conducted with a wide variety of ages, SES groups, states, students with varying ability levels Studies that compare two or more programs at once Multiple studies Just one study is not enough Large sample size The more students in the study the better
RTI is the Problem Solving Model Steps in the Model What is the problem? Why does the problem exist? What should be done to address the problem? Did the intervention work, and whats next?
Problem Solving Model Problem Identification Is there a problem? What is it? Problem Analysis Why is it happening? Plan Development What shall we do about it? Plan Evaluation Did Our Plan Work?
RTI decision-making model (Problem-Solving Model) CBM is a tool for making the following decisions: Problem Identification Is the difference between what is expected in the general education curriculum and how the student performs large enough to warrant further assessment? Problem Certification How severe is the problem? Exploring Solutions What are the goals for the intervention? What is the content of the intervention? What is the process of the intervention? Evaluating Solutions Is the student attaining the established goals? If not, does the intervention require modification? Problem Solution Is the discrepancy still significant or can resources be reduced?
Problem-Solving Model dictates specific information to collect at each step Problem-Solving Decision Measurement activitySpecific Task Problem Identification Observe student differences between expected and actual performance Peer-referenced or criterion referenced comparison Problem Certification Describe the magnitude of the difference between actual and expected performance Survey Level Assessment (SLA) Exploring SolutionsDetermine options for annual goals Write annual goal based on SLA Evaluating Solutions Monitor intervention implementation & changes in student performance Collect progress monitoring data & compare with aimline Problem SolutionObserve student difference between expected and actual performance Repeat peer-referenced comparison and SLA
Tenets of the Problem-Solving Model and Response to Intervention (RTI) Learning occurs as an interaction between the student and the environment Problems are defined as a discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring All children will make progress with quality instruction Because the outcomes of typically effective interventions cannot be predicted with certainty, we must measure progress & outcomes Our job, as educational personnel, is to solve educational problems that students experience in schools.
Instructional Intervention Plan Instructional Procedures: Skills to be taught & teaching strategies (i.e. phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension). Materials used Workbook, Accelerated Reader, Picture cards, etc. Arrangements Small group vs. 1:1 teaching etc. Time Time allotted for skill instruction (i.e. 15 minutes) Motivational Strategies Praise, rewards, grades, etc.
Instructional ProceduresMaterialsArrangementsTimeMotivational Strategies Focus/Skill I Teaching Strategy Instructional Intervention Plan Student Name:Teacher Name:Goal:
Interventions Interventions must be implemented similarly to the way they were in research If we deviate from the methods used in research we are not doing the same intervention, thus they are no longer research based Interventions must be in place for 6-8 weeks before efficacy can be evaluated Shorter periods of time cannot truly show change in a valid and reliable way
Big Changes No Child Left Behind IDEIA Reauthorization 2004 Illinois Rules and Regulations Presidents Commission on Special Education Excellence This gives us the opportunity to make significant changes in how we help our students!
IDEIA 2004 the local education agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability may use a process which determines if a child responds to scientific, research-based interventions If we suspect a student has a learning disability we have to consider, along with data, that the child was provided appropriate high-quality, research based intervention in general education settings We must rule out lack of scientifically based instruction in Reading and Math, and lack of English proficiency
CBM CBM stands for Curriculum Based Measurement It is a way to monitor students and get them the help they need as they need it Is applicable in all academic areas and behavior
Problems with Most Traditional Assessments: Too long Too complicated Too infrequent Too hard to interpret Too insensitive to progress Too different from curriculum materials Too vague for informing instruction And likely out of touch with IDEIA 2004
Characteristics of Curriculum- Based Measures Short Simple Frequent Easy to interpret Sensitive to progress From your curriculum materials Informs instructional decision making Aligns with the IDEIA 2004 assessment requirements
History of Curriculum-Based Measurement (Deno, 2003) The developers of CBM sought to establish a measurement system that: teachers could use efficiently would produce accurate, meaningful information that would easily measure progress could answer questions about program effectiveness would inform instructional decisions
CBM Critical Features CBM is distinctive from curriculum-based assessment Standardized and highly prescriptive Reliable and Valid scores Alternative forms of equal difficulty Samples the year-long curriculum Repeated measurement on a single task Changes in performance on this task are then interpreted to reflect change in a students proficiency
Big Ideas about CBM CBM are simple, efficient, valid tools for decision making in the basic skills areas CBM are dynamic indicators of basic skills Dynamic: Is sensitive to change over time Indicators: General outcome measures Basic Skills: Focus on basic skills because these are the most predictive of general academic achievement (e.g., reading, math, written expression, and spelling)
Basic Curriculum-Based Measures Academic AreaTask & Administration Time Scoring Units ReadingOral reading from passage for 1 minute # of Words Read Correct # of Errors MathCompletion of computational problems for 2-5 minutes # of Correct Digits # Correct Problems Written ExpressionWriting a story given a story starter for 3 minutes # of Words Written # of Correct Writing Sequences SpellingWriting spelling words dictated every 5 seconds for 2 minutes # of Correct Letter Sequences # of Words Spelled Correctly
CBM is like a thermometer
What CBM can tell us about academic health If we have a reading problem worth watching If we have a serious problem It gives us a goal for our intervention If our intervention is effective If our intervention is successful End of year first grade student reading 30 Words Read Correct (WRC) Per Minute End of year first grade student reading 10 WRC Per Minute End of year first grade student reading 50 WRC Per Minute First grade students reading is going up 2 words per week Reading level is within normal range
Rationale for Using CBM Strong Research Base - Over 30 years of CBM research has demonstrated that when teachers use CBM for instructional decision making: Students learn more Teacher decision making improves Students are more aware of their performance Teachers can write legally defensible IEP goals (Yell & Stecker, 2003) Aligned with IDEIA and RTI
CBM AND PROGESS MONITORING District Wide Use benchmarks to monitor all students 3 times a year-fall, winter, and spring Identify students at-risk Classroom Monitor students who are at-risk.
CBM progress monitoring procedures Define the annual goal in measurable terms (Words read correct per minute) Draw a goal line connecting the students initial performance to the end-of-year goal to illustrate the rate of progress by which the teacher expects the student to achieve. Frequently administer CBM probes (2x per week, weekly, biweekly) Plot the scores and apply standard decision-making rules to the graphed data. When the students actual rate of progress is not as rapid as the anticipated rate of progress, the teacher implements an intervention likely to enhance student achievement
Progress Monitoring Graph
Reasons for Progress Monitoring Progress monitoring is conducted frequently and is designed to: Estimate rates of student improvement Identify students who are not demonstrating adequate progress Compare the efficacy of different forms of instruction, and design more effective, individualized instructional programs for learners CBM is formative – it informs instructional decisions
Reasons for using CBM to Write Goals Measures performance and progress in the general curriculum (IDEIA 2004) Produces ambitious, specific measurable goals (IDEIA 2004) Allows for both summative and formative evaluation (IDEIA 2004) Allows for frequent reports to parents that are easily understood (IDEIA 2004) Decision-rules for making changes when students are unexpectedly not making progress (IDEIA 2004) CBM procedures have been validated for use in writing observable and measurable goals and making statements about students progress in the general curriculum
Research Approved Curricula- Reading REWARDS Approved for Grades 4-12 Most appropriate for Tier 2 or 3 Collaborative Strategic Reading Approved as Tier 1 for Grades 3-6 Approved as Tier 2 for Grades 7-12
Research Approved Curricula- Reading Cont. Vocabulary Through Morphemes Approved for Grades 4-8 Best for Tier 2 Six Minute Solution Approved for Grades K – 9 Most appropriate for Tier 2 or 3
Research Approved Curricula- Math I CAN Learn® Pre-Algebra and Algebra Approved for Grades 6-12 Can be Tier 2 or Tier 3 p?src=content Saxon Middle School Math Approved for Grades K through 12 Can be Tier 1 or 2 US/saxonmath_intermediate
CBM Materials & Resources What Works Clearing House Aimsweb / Edformation DIBELS INTERVENTIONS
Additional Resources PBIS Behavior Supports Institute for Academic Success Matching interventions to students RtI Resources
More Resources National Center on Student Progress Monitoring Consortium on Reading Excellence Florida Center for Reading Research Oregon Reading First Center Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts