2Why care about RtI? Reason 1 Schools are about the business of teaching students skillsTo be life-long learnersTo lead productive adult lives
3Why care about RtI? Reason 2 NCLB: all students must demonstrate proficiency on math and English language arts by the end of the school yearRtI reasearch indicates that 94-98% of all students can meet grade level benchmarks when provided with appropriate general education intervention
4Why care about RtI? Reason 3 RtI supports quality implementation of special education viaSpecial education being part of a district’s overall intervention processAssistance with child findAlternative approach to SLD identificationMay reduce the need for traditional standardized testingMay assist in timely ID of suspected disabilityMay assist in adverse impact determinationsProgress monitoring and problem solving strategies
5What is RTI?A tiered model that is used in place of the established discrepancy model for determining interventions for students struggling in schoolIt is a model that relies on data-based decision makingCBM provides a portion of the data needed to change instruction and interventionIdentifying and providing high quality instruction and research-based interventions matched to student needsTalk about old LD criteria
6What is RTI A district-wide process Identifies students All buildings/grade levels will participate in the processIdentifies studentsNot achieving to benchmark standardsAnd/or whose behavior is affecting educational performanceUses a problem solving framework to address learning needs
7RtI Core Principles Commit to effectively teaching all children Intervene earlySupport learning with a systematic multi-tier service delivery modelUse a problem-solving model to make instructional/intervention decisionsUse scientific, research-based interventionsMonitor student progress to inform instructionUse data to make decisionsUse assessment for three different purposes
8RTI Core Principles and Components If we do this:Use research-based, scientifically validated tiers of instruction and interventionScientifically based screening and progress monitoring to inform instruction and interventionUse of data in the decision making processWe can get this:Prevention and Early InterventionProblem solving is building a better support system for general educationEvery student is everyone’s responsibility
9RTI Tiers Tier 1 80% Tier 3 5% Tier 2 15% Warning, these levels are IDEAL levels, not necessarily where our school will be
10Tier 1Students with no supplemental interventions neededAll students in all settingsPreventive and ProactiveTier 2Students who are at-risk and need supplemental interventionsGenerally small group instruction with additional or different curriculaSome studentsHigh efficiency, rapid responseTier 3Students who are highly at risk and need intensive interventionsGenerally one-on-one instructionCan be, but not necessarily special education studentsAssessment-based, high intensityGenerally of a longer durationTier 3 does not mean special education!Information about how tiers are used together, if you get tier 2 you still get tier 3
11We've started the intervention, what’s next? Stay the courseIf a student is successful, keep them in program as it isIf you think the student is ready to transition back to Tier 1 only services, gradually reduce the intervention and closely monitor their progressIf the student begins to have trouble again, go back to what was workingIf they are doing well with no additional intervention services needed let them go back to Tier 1 only
12RTIRequires schools to use research-based curricula and intervention strategies at all levelsBe warned- many curriculums will call themselves research-based, but in fact are notExample of research based and not research based
13Which research is good?Research conducted with a wide variety of ages, SES groups, states, students with varying ability levelsStudies that compare two or more programs at onceMultiple studiesJust one study is not enoughLarge sample sizeThe more students in the study the better
14RTI is the Problem Solving Model Steps in the ModelWhat is the problem?Why does the problem exist?What should be done to address the problem?Did the intervention work, and what’s next?
15Problem Solving Model Problem Identification Problem Analysis Is there a problem? What is it?Plan EvaluationDid Our Plan Work?Problem AnalysisWhy is it happening?Plan DevelopmentWhat shall we do about it?
16RTI decision-making model (Problem-Solving Model) CBM is a tool for making the following decisions:Problem IdentificationIs the difference between what is expected in the general education curriculum and how the student performs large enough to warrant further assessment?Problem CertificationHow severe is the problem?Exploring SolutionsWhat are the goals for the intervention?What is the content of the intervention?What is the process of the intervention?Evaluating SolutionsIs the student attaining the established goals?If not, does the intervention require modification?Problem SolutionIs the discrepancy still significant or can resources be reduced?
17Problem-Solving Model dictates specific information to collect at each step Problem-Solving DecisionMeasurement activitySpecific TaskProblem IdentificationObserve student differences between expected and actual performancePeer-referenced or criterion referenced comparisonProblem CertificationDescribe the magnitude of the difference between actual and expected performanceSurvey Level Assessment (SLA)Exploring SolutionsDetermine options for annual goalsWrite annual goal based on SLAEvaluating SolutionsMonitor intervention implementation & changes in student performanceCollect progress monitoring data & compare with aimlineProblem SolutionObserve student difference between expected and actual performanceRepeat peer-referenced comparison and SLA
18Tenets of the Problem-Solving Model and Response to Intervention (RTI) Learning occurs as an interaction between the student and the environmentProblems are defined as a discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurringAll children will make progress with quality instructionBecause the outcomes of typically effective interventions cannot be predicted with certainty, we must measure progress & outcomesOur job, as educational personnel, is to solve educational problems that students experience in schools.
19Instructional Intervention Plan Instructional Procedures:Skills to be taught & teaching strategies (i.e. phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension).Materials usedWorkbook, Accelerated Reader, Picture cards, etc.ArrangementsSmall group vs. 1:1 teaching etc.TimeTime allotted for skill instruction (i.e. 15 minutes)Motivational StrategiesPraise, rewards, grades, etc.
20Instructional Intervention Plan Student Name: Teacher Name: Goal:Instructional ProceduresMaterialsArrangementsTimeMotivational StrategiesFocus/Skill I Teaching Strategy
21InterventionsInterventions must be implemented similarly to the way they were in researchIf we deviate from the methods used in research we are not doing the same intervention, thus they are no longer research basedInterventions must be in place for 6-8 weeks before efficacy can be evaluatedShorter periods of time cannot truly show change in a valid and reliable wayWe need to 1. support and extend the critical elements of the core program 2. provide additional instruction in critical areas 3. provide more instruction or practice in the areas of need
22Big Changes No Child Left Behind IDEIA Reauthorization 2004 Illinois Rules and RegulationsPresident’s Commission on Special Education ExcellenceThis gives us the opportunity to make significant changes in how we help our students!
23IDEIA 2004“the local education agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability”“may use a process which determines if a child responds to scientific, research-based interventions”If we suspect a student has a learning disability we have to consider, along with data, that the child was provided appropriate high-quality, research based intervention in general education settingsWe must rule out lack of scientifically based instruction in Reading and Math, and lack of English proficiency
24CBM CBM stands for Curriculum Based Measurement It is a way to monitor students and get them the help they need as they need itIs applicable in all academic areas and behavior
25Problems with Most Traditional Assessments: Too longToo complicatedToo infrequentToo hard to interpretToo insensitive to progressToo different from curriculum materialsToo vague for informing instructionAnd likely out of touch with IDEIA 2004
26Characteristics of Curriculum-Based Measures ShortSimpleFrequentEasy to interpretSensitive to progressFrom your curriculum materialsInforms instructional decision makingAligns with the IDEIA 2004 assessment requirementsEvery minute spent on assessing takes time away from teaching. So assessments should be efficient and provide information that will guide instruction and improve student incomes.
27History of Curriculum-Based Measurement (Deno, 2003) The developers of CBM sought to establish a measurement system that:teachers could use efficientlywould produce accurate, meaningful information that would easily measure progresscould answer questions about program effectivenesswould inform instructional decisions
28CBM Critical FeaturesCBM is distinctive from curriculum-based assessmentStandardized and highly prescriptiveReliable and Valid scoresAlternative forms of equal difficultySamples the year-long curriculumRepeated measurement on a single taskChanges in performance on this task are then interpreted to reflect change in a student’s proficiency
29“Big Ideas” about CBMCBM are simple, efficient, valid tools for decision making in the basic skills areasCBM are dynamic indicators of basic skillsDynamic: Is sensitive to change over timeIndicators: General outcome measuresBasic Skills: Focus on basic skills because these are the most predictive of general academic achievement (e.g., reading, math, written expression, and spelling)
30Basic Curriculum-Based Measures Academic AreaTask & Administration TimeScoring UnitsReadingOral reading from passage for 1 minute# of Words Read Correct# of ErrorsMathCompletion of computational problems for 2-5 minutes# of Correct Digits# Correct ProblemsWritten ExpressionWriting a story given a story starter for 3 minutes# of Words Written# of Correct Writing SequencesSpellingWriting spelling words dictated every 5 seconds for 2 minutes# of Correct Letter Sequences# of Words Spelled CorrectlyGo over the reading probe, handout #s 1 and 2
32What CBM can tell us about academic “health” If we have a reading “problem” worth watchingIf we have a serious “problem”It gives us a goal for our interventionIf our intervention is effectiveIf our intervention is successfulEnd of year first grade student reading 30 Words Read Correct (WRC) Per MinuteEnd of year first grade student reading 10 WRC Per MinuteEnd of year first grade student reading 50 WRC Per MinuteFirst grade student’s reading is going up 2 words per weekReading level is within “normal” range
33Rationale for Using CBM Strong Research Base - Over 30 years of CBM research has demonstrated that when teachers use CBM for instructional decision making:Students learn moreTeacher decision making improvesStudents are more aware of their performanceTeachers can write legally defensible IEP goals (Yell & Stecker, 2003)Aligned with IDEIA and RTI
34CBM AND PROGESS MONITORING District WideUse benchmarks to monitor all students3 times a year-fall, winter, and springIdentify students at-riskClassroomMonitor students who are at-risk.
35CBM progress monitoring procedures Define the annual goal in measurable terms (Words read correct per minute)Draw a goal line connecting the student’s initial performance to the end-of-year goal to illustrate the rate of progress by which the teacher expects the student to achieve.Frequently administer CBM probes (2x per week, weekly, biweekly)Plot the scores and apply standard decision-making rules to the graphed data.When the student’s actual rate of progress is not as rapid as the anticipated rate of progress, the teacher implements an intervention likely to enhance student achievement
36Progress Monitoring Graph Talk about decision making and graphs, show Excel template and how easy it is to graph
37Reasons for Progress Monitoring Progress monitoring is conducted frequently and is designed to:Estimate rates of student improvementIdentify students who are not demonstrating adequate progressCompare the efficacy of different forms of instruction, and design more effective, individualized instructional programs for learnersCBM is formative – it informs instructional decisions
38Reasons for using CBM to Write Goals Measures performance and progress in the general curriculum (IDEIA 2004)Produces ambitious, specific measurable goals (IDEIA 2004)Allows for both summative and formative evaluation (IDEIA 2004)Allows for frequent reports to parents that are easily understood (IDEIA 2004)Decision-rules for making changes when students are unexpectedly not making progress (IDEIA 2004)CBM procedures have been validated for use in writing observable and measurable goals and making statements about student’s progress in the general curriculum
39Research Approved Curricula- Reading REWARDSApproved for Grades 4-12Most appropriate for Tier 2 or 3Collaborative Strategic ReadingApproved as Tier 1 for Grades 3-6Approved as Tier 2 for Grades 7-12REWARDS also has curricula specifically applied to Science and Social Studies reading passages. Be sure to match our curricula to the needs of our school population, take into account SES levels, if the students are alread fluent readers, etc.
40Research Approved Curricula- Reading Cont. Vocabulary Through MorphemesApproved for Grades 4-8Best for Tier 2Six Minute SolutionApproved for Grades K – 9Most appropriate for Tier 2 or 3
41Research Approved Curricula- Math I CAN Learn® Pre-Algebra and AlgebraApproved for Grades 6-12Can be Tier 2 or Tier 3Saxon Middle School MathApproved for Grades K through 12Can be Tier 1 or 2
42CBM Materials & Resources What Works Clearing HouseAimsweb / EdformationDIBELSINTERVENTIONS
43Additional Resources PBIS Behavior Supports Institute for Academic SuccessMatching interventions to studentsRtI Resources
44More Resources National Center on Student Progress Monitoring Consortium on Reading ExcellenceFlorida Center for Reading ResearchOregon Reading First CenterTexas Center for Reading and Language Arts