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Recipe for Developing and Implementing an Effective IEP

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1 Recipe for Developing and Implementing an Effective IEP
Idaho State Department Education

2 Agenda Alignment of the IEP with the General Education Curriculum
Recipe for Effective IEP Present Level of Performance General Education Standards Goals & Objectives Embedding Instruction/Activity Based Instruction Monitoring Progress Wrap-Up & Next Steps Honor & respect all the talent and expertise in the room. Hope to “validate” the knowledge and practices that some may already have and be using. Hope to “teach” some of you about new practices and ways to develop good educational programs for students with disabilities. However, the “learning” is not going to take place this morning, in this setting, with many participants. Today is going to be information gathering for you – a day of listening, reading, reflecting, & forming idea in your mind. Unfortunately there will be no practice and doing it with you. The real learning is going to take place back in your schools or at home when you practice and begin to implement the ideas presented here today. Ideally, each person should have guided and independent practice with feedback but that just isn’t possible in this situation so the best thing we can try to do is ask the district to arrange for some “follow up” sessions. We are telling you that what you hear about today is not learned and put into practice in a couple of hours so that is not an expectation. So our goal today is for participants to think about what is presented and begin to try it in action after you leave. We haven’t figured out what the “follow up” will look like at the point but everyone will need some time to think about what we present today will look like in your work.

3 Special Ed. & Related Service
PLOP Goals & Objectives Special Ed. & Related Service LRE Layers for an effective IEP include (read layers), but only going to focus on two layers today: Present Level Of Performance, the Goals & Objectives, and accommodations. Next, we will very briefly address implementing instruction on IEP goals in activity based instruction. accommodations Other Considerations

4 What the educator hears:
What the State says: “You must align the IEP with the general education curriculum that includes the Idaho State Achievement Standards.” What the educator hears: “Blah, blah, blah, blah, blah, IEP, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah, easy, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah, align, blah.”

5 To align means: “to line up.” (Webster’s)
Try to make it as easy as possible! Presenter Notes: Today, we are going to show you a process to take the alignment one step further and include the IEP. We need to try to make it as easy as possible. Some districts have aligned their core curricula to the standards K-12, and some have adopted a preschool curriculum which will be aligned to the preschool standards.

6 So what are we aligning? General education curriculum (Idaho Early Learning Standards) Individual Education Plans (specially designed instruction) Presenter Notes for discussion points: Note that the morning presentation reviewed K-12 and pre-K standards in Idaho, and the relationship of IDEA to those standards. If a review is needed, or questions are asked, see notes below. Several years ago, districts in Idaho began to align their district curriculum to ensure that it covered all the Idaho State Achievement Standards for Excellence. Idaho’s State Achievement Standards were developed and adopted by the state legislature to be a minimum set of performance expectations. Many districts have curriculum that goes beyond those standards. Special Educators must be familiar with the district general curriculum and it’s alignment to the Idaho State Achievement Standards. In addition to the state legislation pertaining to standards, IDEA 97 regulations require the IEP to include a statement of the child’s present level of performance and how the disability affect’s the involvement and progress in the general curriculum. Since the Idaho State Achievement Standards provide the framework for the general curriculum, if a student with a disability is accessing the general curriculum, they will be working toward the same high standards as all students. This is an important point, because IDEA does not specifically say standards must be included in the IEPs. It is implied in the requirements ensuring access to the general curriculum.

7 General Education Curriculum
Idaho Early Learning Standards Content standards and content knowledge & skills Samples of Applications Aligned with Idaho State Achievement Standards Presenter Notes for discussion points: There are some important terms everyone needs to understand and be familiar with. We discussed these this morning. Other terms you may read and hear about are alternate standards. At this time, Idaho has no required statewide assessment at the preschool level, and there is no requirement to address alternate standards. The alternate achievement standards will be reviewed to determine applicability at the preschool level. The Alternate Standards statements, for students K-12, are actually the same ones used for all students but they have been expanded with alternate knowledge and skills in order to show how every student progresses toward the same content standards, no matter how significant the student’s disability. When we use the term alternate standards, we are talking about the alternate knowledge and skills that are functional skills needed for meaningful participation in a community. These functional, alternate knowledge and skills are categorized into the same general education learning areas: Language Arts (Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, Viewing), Mathematics, Science/Health, and Social Studies instead of functional academics, vocational, self help, communication, etc. Sample applications are examples of actual performance indicators or observable, measurable skills that show progress toward standards. Copies of the double page overview of the Idaho standards are available by calling Exiting standards Coordinator Lydia Guerra at (located in the boxed area on the handout).

8 Content Standards are broad statements of what children are expected to know and be able to do in the specific content areas of math, language arts, communication , social studies, science, humanities and health. Just a reminder of what you heard this morning.

9 Content knowledge & Skills
are clear specific descriptions of knowledge or skills children should acquire by a particular point in their schooling. Just a reminder of what we talked about this morning.

10 The General Education Curriculum (for 3-5 year olds)
Is: Curriculum used with children without disabilities or used with children with severe disabilities Aligned with the Idaho Early Learning Standards Is not only: Activities & materials Instructional methodology Setting Presenter Notes: Tell participants again to remember that when we mention State or District Standards, we mean both the Standard and the Content Knowledge and Skills for that age/grade level. Discussion Points: The general education curriculum for 3-5 year olds should be aligned with Idaho’s Early Learning Standards. They are educational targets for children to learn toward. An early childhood curriculum is not simply activities and materials, methodology and setting. All staff can ensure that children work toward Idaho’s standards by using a range of instructional strategies, settings, materials, based on the child’s varied needs and goals.

11 What Do We Need to Know before you get Started?
Child development Developmentally appropriate practices Idaho Early Learning Standards Kindergarten level Idaho State Achievement Standards Assessment tools and strategies Curricula that are aligned to the standards Alternative sequences or curricula for more severe needs Curriculum materials, instructional methods, environment Alternate assessment for intensive needs: Syracuse curriculum. Examples: Community living domain: Travel: stays with adult when crossing the street Using services: mail a letter at a mailbox Self-Management and Home Living: Safety and health: follow safety rules on playground equipment and near traffic Eating and food preparation: prepare simple snack for self, clean own place after snack Budgeting and planning: Gather belongings for outings, going home Refer to assessment matrix in your handouts.

12 Where are the standards?
See Resources and bibliography at the end of the Early Learning Standards! You can view and obtain a complete copy of Idaho’s standards plus up-to-date information regarding the development of the assessment and accountability system at The Early Learning Standards will be posted on the state bureau site by May 15, 2003. For students whose educational program is primarily functional and generally not focused on the regular education performance standards, the Idaho Alternate Standards & Knowledge and Skills for the state are located at the special education website: At this time, there is no required assessment at the preschool level, so there is no Alternate Assessment at the preschool level.

13 Impact of Our Decisions
Guides the design of educational programs starting in preschool Influences decisions about participation with same-age peers May influence performance on future assessments Alternative or adapted curriculum may impact readiness for kindergarten . Presenter Notes for Discussion Points: Make an analogy to cooking: Learning how to cook early, who you have as a mentor, and how often you practice to cook are all going to influence how successful you end up as a cook. Also, deciding what recipe to use, what ingredients, and how to cook it will influence your end results. We can make this analogy to teaching because these type of factors can have an impact on decisions we make in teaching. Designing educational programs need to start as early as possible in a child’s life. kindergarten and even preschool for some students who have disabilities. If Idaho “has defined a content standard as ‘the student can cook,’ then the performance objective would define ‘what and how good the student can cook’ when the student has mastered the task.” A preschool student might “make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich” but a high school student would cook “spaghetti.” This concept can also be expanded in both directions. A student who is unable to master a sandwich might start by just identifying the ingredients needed (alternate knowledge & skill) or the G/T student would do something harder like cook a “souffle.”

14 Other things we need to know
Parents need to be aware of possible consequences of early IEP decisions. Adapting the curriculum may change the number or difficulty level of concepts taught. Alternate curriculum may not be aligned with standards Additional supports must be provided to reach higher expectations Presenter Notes for Discussion Points/Address Bullets: Continue making the analogy to cooking a recipe. If we change or don’t follow a recipe, there may be an impact. If we decide to add nuts, someone may be allergic to it. If we substitute whole milk with skim milk, it may not make any difference. When we design educational programs, the same applies.

15 What ingredients do you need to get started?
Team Quality early childhood program Developmental and medical history Formal and Informal Assessment Data and developmental scope and sequences Parent/ family information District/State Standards or Curriculum Student interests & strengths Intervention data Team: remember a general educator and the parents! The general educator can be a kindergarten teacher, a Head Start teacher, a parent of the 3-year old child at home, preschool teacher, etc. Refer again to the assessment handout.

16 What recipe should we use?
“Decision Making Process for Accessing the General Education Curriculum”

17 Content Standards and the IEP
Appendix 4D Achievement Standards and Assessment for Students Decision-Making Process for Accessing the General Education Curriculum: Content Standards and the IEP Discuss strengths and needs. Ask: Which content standards does the student need to focus on? How will the student learn the standards? Decision Point: For each need area, what level of participation can this student have in standards-based education? (Consider the relevance and reasonableness.) Begin the standards discussion with the present levels of performance. Consider all sources of data. Standards without Accommodations Standards with Accommodations Standards with Adaptations Alternative/supplemental curriculum or functional skills List standard List standard or functional skill Instruction in general ed. curriculum Instruction in general ed. curriculum with accommodations Instruction in general ed. curriculum with adaptations Instruction in an alternative/supplemental curriculum or instruction in a functional curriculum Write IEP goals and objectives Based on curriculum, instruction, and support decisions made for each goal area, make a decision on how the student will participate in each statewide and districtwide assessment. Assessment without Accommodations Assessment with the Idaho Alternate Assessment September A-98

18 Step 1: Consider All Sources of Data
Eligibility Assessment and Results of State-Wide or District Assessments and Functional Assessments Curriculum-based assessments Portfolio, authentic assessments Observation Data Interview/Survey with parents Refer to the present levels of performance for sources of data (e.g. parents, observation, informal and formal assessment). Only statewide assessment available at the Preschool level is the Pre-K IRI, which is optional. Examples of assessments (see assessment matrix in handouts). Curriculum based assessments Hawaii AEPS LAP-D Brigance Carolina Curriculum Creative Curriculum Portfolio/Authentic assessment Work-Sampling system Do you have adequate information on how the disability affects involvement and progress in general education curriculum? Where is the student in relationship to standard/content knowledge and skills?

19 Review information on child
Determine approximate functioning level Content knowledge and skills at chronological age level and functioning level…and in between to locate possible benchmark points It is appropriate to know the functioning level of the target child as well as the expected skills of same age chronological peers to determine discrepancy and importance of skills. Remember to focus on skills that have a strong impact on the physical, emotional and educational well-being of the child and that promote independence and success in future environments.

20 Step 2: Discussion of Strengths and Needs based on child’s present functioning level
ASK: Which content standards, knowledge & skills does the student need to learn? How will the student learn the content standards, knowledge and skills? Again, what are the critical skill to focus on that are related to the functioning level and that are important to independence and future learning and environments. This discussion is important to have with the entire team- parents and early childhood educators and specialists. What accommodations will need to be made in the environment or in teaching strategies to meet the students needs. Discussion of how important it is to make a match with how the child learns to how the teacher teaches!

21 Make initial selection of standards based on:
Frequent opportunities to practice in natural environment Skills needed in current and next environment Teacher/classroom expectations Skills predictive of later success

22 Determine If Additional Data Is Needed
Across all developmental domains In relation to standard/content knowledge and skill Using a variety of sources Instruction, curriculum, environment, learner Norm or criterion referenced Authentic Parent It may be important to interview parents and teachers to determine learning or teaching styles. Observations of the environment for structure, physical arrangement, variety of materials, organization, etc. may be important in relation to the child’s needs. For instances, you may need more detailed information around a particular area of need to develop a good scope and sequence for instruction. Domain specific measures (e.g. social-emotional domain, motor, language) Next, of course, the team would complete assessments and review with parents and IEP team

23 Step 3: Decision Point For each need area, what level of participation can this student have in Standards-Based Education? Consider relevance & reasonableness Standards without accommodations Standards with accommodations Standards with adaptations Alternate Assessment Achievement Standards which focus on functional and access skills Using the case study, identify what strand is most appropriate for the child. Remember that you may go down a different strand altogether for various needs!! For example, and child with spina bifida may need adaptations for motor areas, but use regular sequences with no accommodations in language arts and communication.

24 Accommodations Children for whom the general curriculum and activities are appropriate/attainable Examples of accommodations: adaptive seating, picture communication schedule, sign language, slant board, environmental changes, etc.)

25 Curriculum Accommodations
Environmental Support Materials accommodations Simplify the activity Peer support Special equipment Use child preferences Use special equipment Adult support Invisible support Handouts: Building Blocks examples.

26 Adaptations A change in what a student is expected to learn and/or demonstrate i.e., A child who is functioning at a much lower developmental age level, but the subject/domain area remains the same as the rest of the class Students who may attain age level skills with intensive instruction Functional skills are critical for the child due to a severe and lifelong disability A student may not achieve mastery of age/grade level skills but is expected to make progress in general education curriculum from where student is at. The team must make judgments regarding what are critical skills for a child with significant disabilities (e.g. functional v. developmental sequences). For example, using a functional communication skills based on needs within the family and at school, rather than identifying body parts.

27 Step 3a – Present Level of Performance & Standard
Write the present level of performance Direct relationship with the assessment summary and the rest of the IEP Starting point for goals List what standards address need? Early Childhood: List EC Standard/Knowledge & Skill Functional Curriculum – List adapted Knowledge & Skill What is the child’s performance level according to data – what the child can do and not do related to same-age peers. Discussions about standards tend to focus on: A. What do we believe all children should know and be able to do? Listing the early learning standard and knowledge and skills is going to show how the disability affects involvement and progress in the general education curriculum when you compare it to the student’s present level of performance. It also tells parents their child is working towards a high standard of performance that is related to school age educational outcomes. For Preschool Students, listing the standards and EC Standard/Knowledge & Skills tell parents what developmental appropriate activities their child is working towards so they will be able to participate with typical peers. For students in a functional curriculum, list the adapted knowledge & skills. It tells the parent their child is working towards the standards for all kids but at a functional level.

28 PLOP Must Address… The child’s current performance in area of need from a variety of sources in clear, objective, measurable terms. How the disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general education curriculum or for preschool children, appropriate activities. Current needs relative to long-term goals, particularly for the next environment Development of the present levels of performance happens through a process of sharing information among IEP team members. As stated earlier, this information will be used to identify and develop annual goals, benchmarks/objectives and progress monitoring. It will assist in identifying how the student will access and participate in state and district achievement standards. It is important to know what a child can and can’t do in all areas, not simply areas failed on a screening instrument! Because it is important to determine related to the next environment, it is critical to involve the kindergarten teacher, who can provide information of classroom expectations and kindergarten standards. Idaho Special Education Manual, Chapter 4, Section 3.C

29 Activity: Refer to case examples to review the ingredients of a PLOP
PLOP Activity Directions: Together look at the PLOP for one case study and review for: The child’s current performance in area of need from a variety of sources in clear, objective, measurable terms. How the disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general education curriculum or for preschool children, appropriate activities. Current needs relative to long-term goals, particularly for the next environment Questions? Remember that you will probably want more practice creating PLOPs within your district. If you would like technical assistance with this area, contact your regional consultant.

30 Step 3b. Consider instruction in early childhood curriculum or functional curriculum What are the essential knowledge & skills needed, How will I teach, What curricular or instructional supports are needed? Review assessment and developmental guidelines Break down skills into finer developmental sequences as needed For example: WHAT - Skill – exchange toys, share How – teaching strategy or materials - modeling, Skillstreaming Curriculum Supports – environmental arrangement – accommodations – specific toys of interest for a child, geographical arrangements, picture symbols HANDOUTS: Examples of early concepts to 3-6 year old concepts and curriculum suggestions. Activity: Refer to AEPS protocols used for case study child that show the sequence of skills and discuss what we were thinking for the target child. May need to break down sequence even more than provided to meet needs of child, or move to an earlier developmental sequence. Discuss other ideas of developmental sequences they may use from curriculums or assessments. Depending on the needs of the child, a variety of different instructional strategies might be needed. A child with autism may need discrete trial training for some skills, but may acquire other skills just through embedding instruction within daily activities. We talked about that earlier this morning, and will address it again a little later this afternoon.

31 Example: AEPS scope and sequence: 0-3 Early Concepts
Categorizes like objects Groups functionally related objects Groups objects according to color, shape, size Matches pictures and/or objects

32 Example: AEPS scope and sequence: 3-6 Concepts
Demonstrates understanding of color, shape, and size concepts Demonstrates understanding of 8 different colors Demonstrates understanding of 5 different shapes Demonstrates understanding of six different size concepts

33 Step 3c. Write IEP goals & objectives/benchmarks
The next step after determining present levels of performance and selected standards and curriculum sequences the child needs, is developing goals and objectives/benchmarks.

34 What is a “Goal?” Annual goals are measurable statements that describe what a child can reasonably be expected to accomplish within one school year. Using the Present Level of Performance, identified areas of needs, and decisions regarding achievement standards, the IEP team will develop annual goals that set direction for child growth. These goals are clear measurable statements about what the child will accomplish in one year. They reflect involvement and progress in the general education curriculum or participation in appropriate activities. When written well, they are meaningful, able to be monitored for student progress, and useful in making decisions. Some curricula give offer resources for developing IEP goals and objectives from their developmental sequences. Example from AEPS in handouts.

35 Idaho Special Education Manual states:
Measurable annual goals… Relate to needs described in the PLOP Describe what a student will accomplish in one year Enable involvement in the general education curriculum and address other educational needs resulting from the disability Include behavior, performance criteria, and evaluation procedure The Idaho Special Education Manual provides clarification regarding annual goals and benchmarks/objectives.

36 Annual Goals Include… Behavior Performance criteria
the skill or action to be performed and monitored. Performance criteria how well the student will perform the skill using a standard of performance such as: rate, frequency, accuracy, time/duration. Evaluation Procedure what method or tool will be used to measure progress. Let’s discuss the three components needed in a goal: Behavior - the skill or action to be performed and monitored, the setting in which the behavior will occur, the materials to be used, and peers/adults involved (e.g. initiating interactions with adults v. peers in free play). Performance criteria - how well the student will perform the skill using a standard of performance, such as; rate, frequency, accuracy, time/duration over a period of time to demonstrate the specific behavior consistently. 3 consecutive trials over a period of either consecutive days or data probes (taking data once or twice a week instead of daily) is a typical mastery level. Evaluation procedure - what method or tool will be used to evaluate progress which may include a description of the assessment material.

37 Benchmarks/Objectives
are measurable, intermediate steps between the present level of performance and the goal. = A point of confusion has centered around what benchmarks/objectives are and how do you write them. Understanding sequencing strategies or the logical structure for a goal statement will help you write IEP’s. Benchmarks establish expected performance levels that allow for regular checks of progress that coincide with the reporting periods for informing parents of their child's progress toward achieving the annual goals. Objectives are discrete skills. IDEA also emphasizes “progress” so the steps must be measurable in relationship to the goal. The benchmarks/objectives need to tell parents whether their child’s progress is sufficient to be able to reach the annual goal.

38 Benchmarks/ Objectives
Two or more benchmarks/objectives are written for each goal. They must be steps to accomplishing the goal and tell us... How far the student will progress. By when the student is expected to meet the benchmark/objective. Presenter Notes for Discussion points: Make sure the benchmark/objective is measurable, represents expectations, is developmentally appropriate, and relates to progress toward the annual goal. By when means having dates for the benchmark or objective spread across the year.

39 Procedures for measuring progress…..
Observations & Analysis Classroom, playground, community Interview/Survey/Rating Scales Families,Teachers, Student, etc. Assessment of Performance Portfolios/Work Samples Criterion Reference Curriculum Based Measures There are many ways to measure progress. These are some of the more commonly used methods in schools. The method should be chosen that best fits the behavior identified in the goal and the outcome that is the target. [Optional Activity: Have participants share strategies that they have found to be useful.]

40 What is a Performance Criterion?
Rate will initiate interaction with peers 2x within 20 minutes over 2 probes in a week Frequency(number of times) will make a request 2x during 20 minute period for 2 data probes Accuracy (percent or target score) will sort by color during free play 80% of opportunity 5 consecutive probes Speaker Notes for discussion: Depending on the recording strategy that you are using, you will decide how to write the criterion for the measurable goal, objective or benchmark. Some criterion examples when you are using event recording procedures are rates, percentage or accuracy, frequency, or defined standard. The teacher needs to determine how long the child needs to perform at criterion to know that the skills is indeed learned. Examples in slide.

41 What is a Performance Criterion? (cont.)
According to a Defined Standard correctly uses the identified steps steps for toileting 3 consecutive opportunities proficient as scored by the Carolina Curriculum rubric for following directions 3 consecutive times Time/Duration (latency, maintenance) Engages with objects during free play for 3 minutes per object for 5 consecutive days Speaker Notes for last point: If the recording strategy involves duration or latency, then the criterion defines the time/duration of the observed behavior or the time/duration between the levels of prompts and the initiation of the behavior.

42 What is an evaluation procedure?
An evaluation procedure refers to how you are going to monitor progress. Answers: What method? What materials? How much data? Method Materials How Much Data? 1:1 Data probe 2-3x/weekly Direct Obs. Obs. Data probe Daily Portfolio Photo journal 1x/monthly Your procedure is determined by the criterion you select. So, if rate is your criterion, you will select a data probe When we look at the requirement to identify an evaluation procedure in order to monitor a goal, we are discussing what method you will use, what materials are going to be needed, and finally how much data you are going to need to be able to make a decision.

43 Activity: Review the ingredients of annual goals and objectives
[Trainer Note: Complete the following Goal Writing Activity.] Goal Writing Activity Directions: Turn to your case examples on PLOPs, Goals and Benchmarks/Objectives. Using the first example for Sean, Let’s look at the Annual Goal written for her. Are all of the components in this goal? Move on to next slide on Benchmarks/Objectives. Repeat for 2nd example

44 The Icing Between the Layers
Remember to outline: accommodations adaptations and supports for all areas of need on the IEP The accommodations, adaptations and/or supports are the icing that allows the child to perform the skill/s most effectively and accurately to progress in the general curriculum.

45 Activity: Review the ingredients for accommodations, adaptations and supports Refer to case study example/s.

46 Step 4: Based on Curriculum, Instruction & Support Decisions Made for Each Goal, Make a Decision on How the Student will Participate in State/District Assessment. with or without accommodations, or adaptations, or alternate assessment NO STATE REQUIRED EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENTS AT THIS TIME!!

47 Instruction in natural environments is a critical layer of an effective IEP
instructional plan Now that you have this nice piece of paper with all these signatures on it, how will you implement the plan on a day to day basis!

48 The Building Blocks Model
Child-Focused Instructional Strategies Embedded Learning Opportunities Curriculum Accommodations and Adaptations This morning we talked about high quality programs and the continuum of supports from minimal to intensive, based on student needs. This afternoon, we’ve talked about developing and IEP using standards, for two children. We talked about accommodations for our sample children, and incorporated that into our IEPs. Now, it’s important to know how to implement the IEP in typical preschool activities with a range of supports from embedded learning opportunities to explicit instruction using child-focused instructional strategies. We will be unable to go into depth using this model. We will be providing training in each content domain using this model, and will provide technical assistance that promotes the use of activity-based/embedded instruction. High Quality Early Childhood Program Schwartz and Sandall. 2002

49 Embedded Learning Opportunities
Daily schedules and lesson plans Child assessment worksheet Planning worksheet Classroom activity matrix Child activity matrix Use case example: review forms and matrices

50 Child-Focused Instructional Strategies
Individual plan for instruction Involves data collection

51 Monitoring Progress Matrix of data???? Schedule for collecting data
Schedule set on IEP

52 Resources: See bibliography and resources in Early Learning Standards
Appendix 4D Idaho SDE Manual: “Achievement Standards and Assessments for Students” District and regional resources: i.e.Head Start and SDE regional resources Each other !

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