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FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE & ENVIRONMENT Advancing Australian Peanuts on a Nutritional Quality Platform The Quest for Quality Food | Research Symposium | 15.

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Presentation on theme: "FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE & ENVIRONMENT Advancing Australian Peanuts on a Nutritional Quality Platform The Quest for Quality Food | Research Symposium | 15."— Presentation transcript:

1 FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE & ENVIRONMENT Advancing Australian Peanuts on a Nutritional Quality Platform The Quest for Quality Food | Research Symposium | 15 July 2014 School of Chemical Engineering, UNSW Dr. N. Alice Lee | Senior Lecturer Peanut Company of Australia Dr. Graeme C. Wright | Manager, Peanut Breeding and Innovation Department of Plant and Food Sciences Dr. Kim-Yen Phan-Thien | Teaching and Research Fellow

2 Advancing Australian Peanuts ›Rise of health and nutrition marketing ›The Australian peanut industry ›Peanut genetics and breeding ›Story 1: Development of Hi-Oleic peanuts ›Story 2: Antioxidants – the next quality milestone in peanuts? ›Conclusions 2 Agenda

3 The Context 3 Rising Importance of Nutrition & Health-Related Qualities in Food ›Top 10 functional food trends -Health influenced the food purchase decisions of 64% of consumers, up from 61% in 2012 -58% of consumers thought a lot about the healthfulness of their foods/beverages, 47% thought a lot about food ingredients, and 40% frequently turned their thoughts to food safety -Eight in 10 adults made some effort to eat healthier last year, and one-third (34%) made a lot of effort – behavior patterns that are unchanged over the past six years -“Ingredients added for special health benefits" and "higher in nutrients"… the top two attributes that made a food product good for health and wellness ›Global functional food/beverage sales topped $118 billion in 2012 Sloan (2014) Food Technology 68(4)

4 The Australian Peanut Industry 4 Industry Snapshot Atherton, -15°S Bundaberg Kingaroy, -27°S St George Emerald ›World peanut production 39.9 Mt ( 2012/13) -China, India & USA the main producers -USA is the dominant exporter & sets world prices ›Australian production contributes 0.2% -11,300 ha yielding 26 kt (2.8 kt exported) -5-8 kt imported mainly from China & Argentina ›>95% Australian production in QLD -Severe droughts over past 2 decades have reduced production in Kingaroy -Large shift into irrigated regions esp. coastal Burnett ›PCA established 1924 as state marketing board and deregulated in 1992 – still the largest processor, marketer & supplier in Australia

5 1985 McCubbinShulamit 1990 NC7Streeton 1995 RobertsCondor 2000 MiddletonWheeler 2005 AshtonWalterSutherlandMenziesHolt 2010 Tingoora The Australian Peanut Industry ›Genetic improvement a key strategy to achieve production goals ›Historical shift in emphasis of peanut breeding program since 1977 5 Peanut Breeding in Australia -1980s: yield and drought adaptation for dryland production -1990s: yield and adaptation for increased irrigated production -Since 1995: yield and kernel quality -2000s: earlier maturing varieties Sun Oleic 95R imported from USA

6 Story 1: Hi-Oleic Peanuts 6 What are Hi-Oleic Peanuts? Fatty Acid Composition… Comparison of Fats Chart prepared by the Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida (2003).

7 Story 1: Hi-Oleic Peanuts ›Health benefits for consumers = marketing opportunity ›Product differentiation from international ‘commodity grade’ peanuts 7 Benefits of Hi-Oleic Peanuts ›Greater oil stability -Better shelf-life – less wastage -Less packaging requirements: no need for barrier packaging, pre-coating or stabilisers ›Reduced oxidation -Less off-flavour development -Slower decline in roasted peanut flavour (esp. pyrazines) -Better tasting nuts for longer

8 Story 1: Hi-Oleic Peanuts ›Trait identified by Uni. Florida in 1980s -Hi-Oleic trait is controlled by 2 recessive genes (‘ol1’ and ‘ol2’) ›Introduced to Australia in 1990s -Conventional breeding to backcross Hi-Oleic mutant (F435) with adapted commercial Virginia lines e.g. Streeton, Conder -Selection for Hi-Oleic segregants in F2 initially done using gas chromatography on half a kernel so that remainder could still be planted for further generations -From mid-2000s NIRS calibrations developed to enable single seed selection ›PCA has supplied 100% Hi-Oleic peanuts since 2002 -All new peanut variety releases from breeding program are Hi-Oleic -Quality assurance to maintain seed purity 8 The R&D road to Hi-Oleic Peanuts

9 Story 2: Antioxidant-Rich Peanuts ›Antioxidants may counteract oxidative damage to tissues and reduce risk of chronic degenerative diseases ›Dietary antioxidant research frequently measures ‘total antioxidant capacity’ and phytochemical composition 9 Dietary Antioxidants and Human Health ›Peanuts contain a wide range of antioxidants inc. phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, tocopherols

10 Story 2: Antioxidant-Rich Peanuts ›Australian peanut breeding lines phenotyped for antioxidant capacity -Genotypic variation: 25% RSD in ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay) of 32 representative lines -G×E interaction: Relatively low G×E interaction suggests selection may be effective in different environments -Heritability: Moderate broad-sense heritability (genotype explained 44% phenotype on a plot basis and 82% on an entry mean basis) 10 Australian R&D towards Antioxidant-Rich Peanuts

11 Story 2: Antioxidant-Rich Peanuts 11 Genetic Variation and Breeding Potential ›Recombinant Inbred (RIL) population analysed for antioxidant capacity -Broad range in ORAC values that was normally distributed -Likely transgressive segregation beyond parental means ›Further research -More work required to confirm heritability and G x E for the trait -Rapid, accurate and low cost phenotyping techniques are required to enable selection in larger segregating populations -Role of conjugated and matrix-bound antioxidants – implications for analysis but also bioavailability, bioactivity & functional food utility -Postharvest stability, processing effects, market & consumer research

12 Conclusions ›The nutrition, health & wellness trend is a huge marketing opportunity -Use biomedical & clinical research to identify traits with substantiated health benefits -Input from market research to identify specific traits with commercial potential -Need to ensure marketing is an accurate portrayal of the science ›Plant breeding to improve nutritional quality & value of primary products -Requires genetic variability for conventional breeding -Commercial viability requires simple, low cost, rapid phenotyping screen -Other strategies: enhancement by processing & fortification/supplementation ›Interdisciplinary/collaborative approach for long-term success -Draw on University, DAFF and industry R&D capabilities to develop products that can be differentiated on a scientific basis – esp. genetic, biochemical -Collaborate to make the most of resources e.g. lab, pilot and commercial-scale R&D -Use interdisciplinary understanding to advantage e.g. plant physiology > agronomy > G×E > postharvest > bio-processing 12 General Ideas for Australian Food Industries

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