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Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Global Business Today 7e by Charles W.L. Hill.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Global Business Today 7e by Charles W.L. Hill."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Global Business Today 7e by Charles W.L. Hill

2 1-2 Chapter 1 Globalization

3 1-3 What Is Globalization? Question: What is globalization? Globalization - the trend towards a more integrated global economic system Globalization of markets - the merging of historically distinct and separate national markets into one huge global marketplace Globalization of production - the sourcing of goods and services from locations around the globe to take advantage of national differences in the cost and quality of factors of production (labor energy, land, and capital)

4 1-4 The Emergence of Global Institutions Global institutions manage, regulate, and police the global market place promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system Notable global institutions include the World Trade Organization (WTO) the International Monetary Fund (IMF) the World Bank the United Nations (UN)

5 1-5 Drivers of Globalization Question: What is driving the move toward greater globalization? Two macro factors: 1.declining trade and investment barriers 2.technological change International trade occurs when a firm exports goods or services to consumers in another country Foreign direct investment (FDI) occurs when a firm invests resources in business activities outside its home country

6 1-6 Drivers of Globalization Figure1.1: Growth in World Merchandise Trade and Production, 1950 - 2008

7 1-7 Changing World Output and World Trade Question: How has world output and world trade changed over the last 50 years? In the 1960s: the U.S. dominated the world economy and the world trade picture the U.S. dominated world FDI U.S. multinationals dominated the international business scene about half the world-- the centrally planned economies of the communist world-- was off limits to Western international business Today, much of this has changed

8 1-8 Changing World Output and World Trade Table 1.2: The Changing Demographics of World GDP and Trade

9 1-9 Changing Foreign Direct Investment Question: How has the foreign direct investment picture changed over the last 50 years? The share of world output generated by developing countries has been steadily increasing since the 1960s The stock of foreign direct investment (total cumulative value of foreign investments) generated by rich industrial countries is declining Cross-border flows of foreign direct investment are rising The largest recipient of FDI is China

10 1-10 Changing Foreign Direct Investment Figure 1.2: Percentage Share of Total FDI Stock, 1980 – 2008

11 1-11 Changing Foreign Direct Investment Figure 1.3: FDI Inflows, 1988 - 2008

12 1-12 The Changing Multinational Enterprise Question: What is a multinational enterprise? A multinational enterprise is any business that has productive activities in two or more countries Since the 1960s: there has been a rise in non-U.S. multinationals there has been a rise in mini-multinationals

13 1-13 The Changing World Order Question: Why is the changing world order important for firms? The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe new export and investment opportunities Economic development in China huge opportunities despite continued Communist control Free market reforms and democracy in Latin America new markets and new sources of materials and production

14 1-14 The Global Economy in the 21st Century Question: What will the global economy look like in the 21 st century A more integrated global economy new opportunities for firms but, political and economic disruptions can throw plans into disarray

15 1-15 The Globalization Debate Question: Is the shift toward a more integrated and interdependent global economy a good thing? Many experts believe that globalization is promoting greater prosperity in the global economy, more jobs, and lower prices for goods and services Others feel that globalization is not beneficial

16 1-16 Managing in the Global Marketplace Question: What does the shift toward a global economy mean for managers within an international business? Managing an international business (any firm that engages in international trade or investment) differs from managing a domestic business in four key ways

17 1-17 Managing in the Global Marketplace 1.Countries differences require companies to vary their practices country by country 2.Managers face a greater and more complex range of problems 3.International companies must work within the limits imposed by governmental intervention and the global trading system 4.International transactions require converting funds and being susceptible to exchange rate changes


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