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135 CE through to the 17 th Century and why Judaism and Christianity are siblings USE RIGHT OR LEFT ARROWS TO GO FORWARD OR BACK For On-line Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "135 CE through to the 17 th Century and why Judaism and Christianity are siblings USE RIGHT OR LEFT ARROWS TO GO FORWARD OR BACK For On-line Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 135 CE through to the 17 th Century and why Judaism and Christianity are siblings USE RIGHT OR LEFT ARROWS TO GO FORWARD OR BACK For On-line Introduction to Judaism course Unit 4 session 3 Rabbi Jonathan Keren-Black 2010/5771

2 Distant Memories of Herod’s Temple

3 The Romans had destroyed the Temple and Jerusalem in 70 CE – 65 years ago

4 The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans Under the Command of Titus, 70 CE, by David Roberts, Oil on canvas, (from Wiki Commons)

5 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  The trauma and memories of destruction still overshadow Jewish life in Judea.  Without the Temple, the priests have lost their role and there are no more animal sacrifices.  The period of Biblical Judaism is over, and the period of Rabbinic Judaism is being developed and consolidated.

6 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  In Babylon, the Jewish community is aware of the destruction, and mourns with Jerusalem, but life continues there as normal.  Since the people were exiled there in 586 BCE, more than 650 years before, they are well established with leadership, schools and communities as well as work and homes, independent of Jerusalem.

7 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Despite the destruction, Jewish teachers and Rabbis are being trained in Judea.

8 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Despite the destruction, Jewish teachers and Rabbis are being trained in Judea.  The Rabbis console and lead the people and Judaism as we know it is developing.

9 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Despite the destruction, Jewish teachers and Rabbis are being trained in Judea.  The Rabbis console and lead the people and Judaism as we know it is developing.  There is still much dissent about the Roman rulers of Judea, and several revolts.

10 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Despite the destruction, Jewish teachers and Rabbis are being trained in Judea.  The Rabbis console and lead the people and Judaism as we know it is developing.  There is still much dissent about the Roman rulers of Judea, and several revolts.  Shimon bar Kochba, the commander of the last revolt, started in 132 CE, was acclaimed as a heroic figure who could restore Israel.

11 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Shimon bar Kochba was even considered the Messiah by some of the leading Rabbis such as Rabbi Akiva (both mentioned in the Haggadah).  The headquarters of the rebellion was at ‘Betar’, very close to Jerusalem (the name is also today used for a right-wing Zionist youth movement).  The revolt was able to establish an independent Jewish state over parts of Judea for more than two years – which even minted its own coins.

12 History in the hand.  Bronze coin with facade of the Temple of Solomon (not the Second Temple!)  Silver Coin from the Bar Kokhba rebellion. Note the Paleo- Hebrew alphabet, and the symbols of the trumpets of freedom and the harp of David.  Silver Coin from the Bar Kokhba rebellion. Note the Paleo- Hebrew alphabet, and the symbols of the trumpets of freedom and the harp of David.

13 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  It took a Roman army of 12 legions with auxiliaries to finally crush the rebellion.  The Romans then barred Jews entirely from Jerusalem, except to attend on Tisha B’Av, the day they mourned the destruction of the Temple. The city is renamed Aelia Capitolina.  Although ‘Jewish Christians’ who hailed Jesus as the Messiah had therefore not supported Bar Kokhba, the Romans also barred them from Jerusalem along with the rest of the Jews.

14 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  The war and its aftermath helped differentiate Christianity as a religion distinct from Judaism.  The Roman Emperor Hadrian again attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions. He prohibited the Torah law and executed Jewish scholars.  In addition to Shimon Bar Kokhba, the Romans also executed ten leading members of the Sanhedrin, the Parliament of the Rabbis.

15 The Ten Martyrs  These were said to be:  the (honorary) High Priest and Rabbi, Ishmael;  the president of the Sanhedrin, Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel  Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Chutzpit  Rabbi Chananiah ben Teradion  Rabbi Eliezer ben Shamua.  Rabbi Eliezer ben Shamua.  Rabbi Chanina ben HaKinai  Rabbi Yeshevav and Rabbi Yehuda ben Dama  Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava

16 For the sake of the One God  The Rabbinic account describes agonizing tortures: Rabbi Ishmael had the skin of his head peeled off slowly, and Rabbi Chanania was burned at a stake, wrapped in wet wool held by a Torah scroll tied around his body to prolong his death.  Rabbi Akiva was flayed with an iron comb, whilst his helpless disciples watched, his final breath declaring his faith in God, ‘ Adonai Echad ’.  Would we be this committed to our faith?

17 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  In another attempt to erase any memory of Judea, Hadrian wiped its name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines, ancient enemies of the Jews).  A sacred Torah scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. Where the Temple had stood, he installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself.

18 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  The Bar Kochba rebellion was put down in 135 CE. Just a couple of years later, Hadrian's own death marked a significant relief to the surviving Jewish communities.  The Bar Kochba rebellion was put down in 135 CE. Just a couple of years later, Hadrian's own death marked a significant relief to the surviving Jewish communities.  The Rabbis had great concerns about the dangers of losing the precious ‘oral tradition’ of interpreting the written Torah. This was partly because of the dangerous times of oppression they lived through, and also because the oral interpretations got more numerous every day!

19 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  To make sure nothing was forgotten, the Rabbis started to write the ‘oral traditions’ down for themselves, as ‘aide memoires’.  Rabbi Judah HaNasi had been collecting, editing and categorising these private collections. Around 220 CE, he published them publicly. This is called the ‘Mishna’ (repetition).  Other Rabbinic material of the time that he either didn’t know about or chose to omit, is called the ‘Tosefta’ (additional material).

20 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Rabbinic Judaism was a ‘portable’ religion, based around communities and synagogues, wherever Jews settled.  As they spread around the Roman Empire and beyond, the Jews took their books and their customs with them.  The Mishna became the central study text, especially in the academies of the land of Israel and in Babylon.

21 Some lines from the Mishna  A few lines of text from the Kaufmann Manuscript, tractate Avot 1,6.7, which is considered to be the most important manuscript of the Mishna. The manuscript is dated approx. 12th century, so it is old – but nearly a thousand years younger than the first copies! The Hebrew is now the script we are familiar with, complete with vowels, and indeed can easily be read.

22 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  After several hundred years of study, heated debate and discussion, and regular exchanges between the Rabbis in the Land of Israel and Babylon, huge collections of discussions were published.  The first collection, known as the ‘Yerushalmi’ (of Jerusalem), was published in about 400 CE.

23 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  The ‘Yerushalmi’ was actually written in Tiberias and Ceasarea in the Galilee to the North of Jerusalem, which was by now the centre of the Rabbinic endeavour in the land of Israel. Sometimes known as the Palestinian Talmud, it is incomplete, and less quoted/used.  This is because, from the Rabbinic academies of Sura and Pumbedita in Babylon, the ‘Bavli’ (Babylonian Talmud) was produced a hundred years later, and became the definitive source.

24 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Rabbinic Judaism is now completely established as mainstream Judaism

25 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Rabbinic Judaism is now completely established as mainstream Judaism  The idea of rebuilding the Temple and recommencing animal sacrifices has been postponed ‘until the Messiah comes’

26 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Rabbinic Judaism is now completely established as mainstream Judaism  The idea of rebuilding the Temple and recommencing animal sacrifices has been postponed ‘until the Messiah comes’  Biblical Judaism – animal sacrifices, geographically centred, run by a hereditary priesthood - is history!

27 Mark One and Mark Two Judaism IIII call the ‘Sacrifice based, geographically centred, hereditary-priest led’ Judaism of the Bible ‘MARK ONE JUDAISM’ TTTThe prayer-based, locally centred, scholar-led, more democratic version shares stories and core values but in practical terms is very different. IIII call this ‘MARK TWO JUDAISM’

28 Judaism and Christianity CCCClearly Mark Two Judaism is heavily based on Mark One Judaism and developed in Judea out of a crisis of hope. AAAAnother new Jewish interpretation also developed from Mark One Judaism, out of the same crisis of hope in Judea. EEEEventually the two separated, and it is known as Christianity. So we are siblings!

29 Not identical but similar MMMMark Two or Rabbinic Judaism – Judaism as we know it today – is about two thousand years old, based on Mark 1 CCCChristianity is about two thousand years old, and is also based on Mark 1 Judaism NNNNot surprisingly, we have many things in common, as well as some differences. AAAAnd not surprisingly there has sometimes been bitter ‘sibling rivalry’ between us.

30 Major Differences JJJJews believe every child is born pure and unblemished MMMMany Christians believe a child is born with ‘original sin’ JJJJews believe God is invisible and can’t be a person MMMMost Christians believe that Jesus is God ‘incarnate’ JJJJews believe that the Messiah hasn’t come yet CCCChristians believe that Jesus was the Messiah JJJJews pray directly to God without intermediaries MMMMost Christians pray to God through Jesus JJJJewish emphasis is on living this life as best we can MMMMany Christians emphasise ‘the life to come’

31 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  According to Dosick, the Rabbinic period ends when the Talmud is published, but others would argue that it continues whilst the Rabbis are the determining power for Judaism and the Jewish community.  In 632, Mohammed dies and the new religion of Islam becomes established. Although the Koran records local difficulties with some Jews, it also recognises both Jews and Christians as beleivers and ‘People of the Book’.

32 A thought!  Judaism introduced pure, ethical monotheism into the world.  Christianity dramatically popularised and spread the core message, but did so by somewhat changing it, making God ‘visible and in some sense human’, and reducing ritual such as circumcision and food laws.  Islam developed some 500 years after this – its intention seems to be to return to the central Torah messages, and re-emphasise the One, invisible God, and the importance of daily ritual.

33 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Jewish study and law continues to develop. Large parts are fixed, but discussions continue about interpretation, apparent contradictions and applications to new situations. Thus, the periphery of the collection of laws continues to grow in both size and complexity.  Substanial Jewish communities are found in many parts of what had been the Roman Empire. One of these is the Spanish Jewish community, known as ‘Sephardi’ (Spanish).

34 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  The Tenth Century is known as ‘The Golden Age’ for Jewish culture and development in Spain.  The Muslim Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III became Caliph of Spain in 912 CE, ushering in the height of tolerance.  Muslims granted Jews and Christians exemptions from military service, the right to their own courts of law, and a guarantee of safety of their property.

35 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Jewish poets, scholars, scientists, statesmen and philosophers flourished in and were an integral part of the extensive Arab civilization.  They were leading doctors and experts, one even rising to lead the army! They wrote and spoke Arabic and wrote poetry in Arabic meter.  Tragically for the Jews and for Spain, this ended with the invasion of the fanatical Muslim Almoravides in 1090.

36 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  1040–1105 Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaki (Rashi) in France/Germany, writes important commentaries on almost the entire Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and Talmud.  The Rashi chapel in Worms.

37 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  1095 – Two hundred years of Christian Crusades begin, sparking warfare with Islam in Palestine. The Crusaders temporarily capture Jerusalem in  Tens of thousands of Jews are killed by European crusaders throughout Europe and in the Middle East.  The Spanish poet and writer Judah HaLevi urges the Jews to emigrate to Palestine and eventually himself arrives in and dies in Jerusalem.

38 Maimonides - The Rambam  Rabbi Moses ben Maimon (died 1204) aka Maimonides or the Rambam, is the leading rabbi of Sephardic Jewry. Among his many accomplishments, he writes an influential code of law (The Mishneh Torah) as well as the most influential philosophical work (Guide for the Perplexed) in Jewish history.  This statue is in Cordova, his birthplace

39 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Jews are expelled from England by Edward 1 after banning usury in  Moses de Leon of Spain (dies 1300) writes the Zohar (Book of Splendour), claiming to be the 2nd century CE esoteric interpretations of the Torah by Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai and his disciples.  This begins the modern form of Kabbalah (esoteric Jewish mysticism).

40 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  1250–1550 The period of the Rishonim, the medieval rabbinic sages. Most Jews at this time lived in lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea or in Western Europe, under feudal systems.  Muslim and Jewish centers of power decline in Iraq (which was Babylon, with all its centuries of Jewish community and scholarship).

41 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Approximately 200,000 Jews are expelled from Spain. Some of them settle in Holland, Turkey, Arab lands, Palestine and even South and Central America.  However, most emigrate to Poland. In later centuries, more than 50% of the world’s Jewish population lived in Poland.  Many publicly convert to Christianity, and remain in Spain as secret or Crypto-Jews.

42 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire issued a formal invitation to the Jews expelled from Spain and Portugal and sent out ships to safely bring Jews to his empire.  Jews expelled from Sicily. As many as 137,000 exiled.  Jews expelled from Portugal and from many German cities.

43 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  As the Iraqi community declined, there was no single place in the world which was a recognized authority for deciding matters of Jewish law and practice.  Consequently, the rabbis responded by writing more commentaries and law codes that would allow Jews anywhere in the world to be able to continue living in the Jewish tradition.

44 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  1488–1575. Rabbi Joseph (Yosef) Karo spends 20 years compiling the Beit Yosef, an enormous guide to Jewish law.  He then writes a more concise guide, the Shulkhan Arukh, that becomes the standard law guide for the next 400 years.  Born in Spain, Joseph Karo lives and dies in Safed, centre of mysticism, Nth Israel.

45 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  The Ghetto of Venice established, the first Jewish ghetto in Europe (it takes its name from the ‘iron foundry’ that was there).  Many other ghettos follow. Widespread limitations, hardships and oppression of Jews across much of Europe.

46 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  1626–1676 The false Messiah Shabbatai Z’vi raises hopes among desperate Jews.  1648 The Jewish population of Poland reached 450,000 (i.e. 4% of the 11 million population of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is Jewish), Bohemia has 40,000 Jews and Moravia 25,000.  Worldwide population of Jewry is estimated at 750,000.

47 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  1648–1655. The Ukrainian Cossack, Bogdan Chmielnicki, leads a massacre of Polish gentry and Jewry that leaves an estimated 65,000 Jews and a similar number of gentry dead (Chmielnicki massacre).  Jews readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell.  Arab massacre of Jews in Hebron (near Jerusalem in Palestine).

48 Conclusion of Presentation  That concludes the history summary for this session, the period 135 CE (the end of the hopes for a return to Jewish self- rule) to the 17 th century, the start of the ‘modern period’.  The 18 th century to the Shoah is covered in the next session and presentation.


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