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King David, 1000 BCE through to 135 CE USE RIGHT OR LEFT ARROWS TO GO FORWARD OR BACK For Introduction to Judaism course Unit 4 session 2, part 2 Rabbi.

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Presentation on theme: "King David, 1000 BCE through to 135 CE USE RIGHT OR LEFT ARROWS TO GO FORWARD OR BACK For Introduction to Judaism course Unit 4 session 2, part 2 Rabbi."— Presentation transcript:

1 King David, 1000 BCE through to 135 CE USE RIGHT OR LEFT ARROWS TO GO FORWARD OR BACK For Introduction to Judaism course Unit 4 session 2, part 2 Rabbi Jonathan Keren-Black, 2012/5772. All illustrations are Wikipedia Commons copyright free

2 Images in this presentation  Most of the images used in this presentation are from the classical artists, who often used the rich and well known stories of the Hebrew Bible.  They rarely knew the landscapes and styles of the original settings and periods, and used their experience or imagination.  Therefore, rich and magnificent as they are, do not expect them to look authentic!

3 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  After King Saul, David is annointed king

4 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  After King Saul, David is annointed king  King David conquers Jebus and renames it Jerusalem as his capital

5 Entry of King David into Jerusalem Frans Francken II, Flanders. 1630s

6 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  After King Saul, David is annointed king  King David conquers Jebus and renames it Jerusalem as his capital  David plans to build a Temple for God but his prophet tells him he cannot

7 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  After King Saul, David is annointed king  King David conquers Jebus and renames it Jerusalem as his capital  David plans to build a Temple for God but his prophet tells him he cannot  After he dies, his son Solomon becomes king, and builds ‘Solomon’s Temple’

8 King Solomon Simeon Solomon, UK, 1872/74, egg tempera with touches of varnish on paper mounted on board

9 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  After Solomon dies, there is a succession battle between his sons.

10 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  After Solomon dies, there is a succession battle between his sons.  The land is divided: two tribes take the south, with Jerusalem at its heart, which is called Judah

11 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  After Solomon dies, there is a succession battle between his sons.  The land is divided: two tribes take the south, with Jerusalem at its heart, which is called Judah  Ten tribes take the north, and call it ‘Israel’

12 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  After Solomon dies, there is a succession battle between his sons.  The land is divided: two tribes take the south, with Jerusalem at its heart, which is called Judah  Ten tribes take the north, and call it ‘Israel’  After a few generations, Israel is destroyed and the residents dispersed

13 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Judah continues, ruled by Kings and guided by prophets

14 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Judah continues, ruled by Kings and guided by prophets  It is in an important location between the trade, and powers, of Africa and Asia

15 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Judah continues, ruled by Kings and guided by prophets  It is in an important location between the trade, and powers, of Africa and Asia  In 586, Solomon’s Temple is destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar

16 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Judah continues, ruled by Kings and guided by prophets  It is in an important location between the trade, and powers, of Africa and Asia  In 586, Solomon’s Temple is destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar  Jerusalem’s leading citizens are sent to Babylon – the ‘Babylonian Exile’

17 Gate Relief of Babylon Two Panels with striding lions, Neo-Babylonian, Nebuchadnezzar II; B.C.E, Babylon Mesopotamia (modern Hilah, Iraq), Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, glazed brick

18 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  The exiles maintain their communities and memories of Jerusalem

19 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  The exiles maintain their communities and memories of Jerusalem  They develop community centres and prayers, and they settle in comfortably

20 Transitional period Transitional period  Suddenly the people were not able to get to the ‘Centre’, nor offer their sacrifices  Instead they thought of Jerusalem, but started meeting locally and praying  The ‘synagogue’ was born

21 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  The exiles maintain their communities and memories of Jerusalem  They develop community centres and prayers, and they settle in comfortably  Just 50 years later, Persia conquers Babylon, and King Cyrus invites the refugees to return to their homelands

22 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  The exiles maintain their communities and memories of Jerusalem  They develop community centres and prayers, and they settle in comfortably  Just 50 years later, Persia conquers Babylon, and King Cyrus invites the refugees to return to their homelands  Most of them prefer to stay in Babylon!

23 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  They retain their identity and traditions, and keep in touch with their homeland, even sending funds to rebuild the Temple

24 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  They retain their identity and traditions, and keep in touch with their homeland, even sending funds to rebuild the Temple  After some years, the Temple is rededicated, sacrifices resume, and the priesthood takes back its responsibilities

25 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  They retain their identity and traditions, and keep in touch with their homeland, even sending funds to rebuild the Temple  After some years, the Temple is rededicated, sacrifices resume, and the priesthood takes back its responsibilities  But they have lost their monopoly – worship and study also continue elsewhere–both in Babylon and in Judah

26 Normal Service Resumed!  Temple service resumed, but it was no longer ‘the only way to be Jewish’.  The priests were sometimes ignorant and corrupt (Saducees).  A new group of Jewish leaders was emerging to guide the people and to interpret the law (Pharisees).  This new leadership was emerging both in Babylon and in Judah

27 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Persia is conquered by the Greeks

28 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Persia is conquered by the Greeks  The Greeks take over the Persian Empire

29 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Persia is conquered by the Greeks  The Greeks take over the Persian Empire  The Seleucid Greeks take control of Judah

30 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Persia is conquered by the Greeks  The Greeks take over the Persian Empire  The Seleucid Greeks take control of Judah  Antiohus takes over the Temple and desecrates it, worshiping Zeus

31 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Persia is conquered by the Greeks  The Greeks take over the Persian Empire  The Seleucid Greeks take control of Judah  Antiohus takes over the Temple and desecrates it, worshiping Zeus  A priest-led guerilla army is formed and regains the Temple – the ‘Maccabees’

32 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Scholarship develops in Judah and Babylon, with regular travel and communications between the two places

33 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Scholarship develops in Judah and Babylon, with regular travel and communications between the two places  Judah is now under the fairly benign rule of Rome and the name is ‘Romanised’ to ‘Judea’

34 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Scholarship develops in Judah and Babylon, with regular travel and communications between the two places  Judah is now under the fairly benign rule of Rome and the name is ‘Romanised’ to ‘Judea’  However, there is increasing sectarian violence and resistance to Rome

35 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  King Herod the Idumean is appointed by Rome, and engages in massive building works, including enlargement of the Temple

36 Herod’s Temple redevelopment

37 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  King Herod the Idumean is appointed by Rome, and engages in massive building works, including enlargement of the Temple  The scholars of Judea and Babylon are given the title of ‘Rabbi’

38 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  King Herod the Idumean is appointed by Rome, and engages in massive building works, including enlargement of the Temple  The scholars of Judea and Babylon are given the title of ‘Rabbi’  One of these wandering teachers of Jewish law is known as Yeshua - Jesus

39 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  It is a time of unrest and strife in Judea. The Romans increase taxes and forbid public reading of the Torah

40 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  It is a time of unrest and strife in Judea. The Romans increase taxes and forbid public reading of the Torah  Different groups announce that their leaders will save the Jews from Roman oppression.

41 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  It is a time of unrest and strife in Judea. The Romans increase taxes and forbid public reading of the Torah  Different groups announce that their leaders will save the Jews from Roman oppression.  Jerusalem is besieged and in 70, it and the Temple are destroyed

42 The destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem Francesco Hayez, Italian, 1791–1882, oil on canvas, 1867

43  In 70, the greatly enlarged ‘Herod’s Temple’ was destroyed by Rome  There were no more sacrifices, and no clear role for the priests  But the institutions of Rabbis and Synagogues were by now well developed to fill the vacuum  Biblical has given way to Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism :

44 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII  Yavneh is established to train Jewish teachers and Rabbis

45 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII   Yavneh is established to train Jewish teachers and Rabbis  The wish remains for the people to be free of the Roman rulership and to regain independence

46 BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA BCE – BEFORE THE COMMON ERA CE – COMMON ERA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII   Yavneh is established to train Jewish teachers and Rabbis   The wish remains for the people to be free of the Roman rulership and to regain independence  Shimon Bar Kochba (or Bar Kosiba), 132, leads a revolt, establishing a government and even a financial system and coinage.

47 Bar Kochba period coin

48 End of the revolt and of hope, and a final separation.  The Judeans, including Rabbi Akiva, believe that Bar Kochba is the Messiah.  The Romans eventually put down the revolt in 135 CE.  This marks the end of hopes for Jewish independence.  Followers of Jesus rejected Bar Kochba, leading to final separation from the Jews.

49  This concludes this presentation.  Your comments and suggestions are always appreciated.


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