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RESISTANCE TRAINING. WHAT IS RESISTANCE TRAINING? Resistance training is a method whereby we use our muscles to move loads greater than we are normally.

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Presentation on theme: "RESISTANCE TRAINING. WHAT IS RESISTANCE TRAINING? Resistance training is a method whereby we use our muscles to move loads greater than we are normally."— Presentation transcript:

1 RESISTANCE TRAINING

2 WHAT IS RESISTANCE TRAINING? Resistance training is a method whereby we use our muscles to move loads greater than we are normally capable of doing. Our muscles become stronger, more dense and more shapely. Resistance training is a method whereby we use our muscles to move loads greater than we are normally capable of doing. Our muscles become stronger, more dense and more shapely.

3 USES OF RESISTANCE TRAINING Strength Power Muscular gain / body shaping Muscular endurance Competitive weightlifting and body building. Strength Power Muscular gain / body shaping Muscular endurance Competitive weightlifting and body building.

4 STRENGTH The ability to exert force against a resistance. Makes your muscles thicker Trains fast twitch fibres Can be static or dynamic The ability to exert force against a resistance. Makes your muscles thicker Trains fast twitch fibres Can be static or dynamic

5 MUSCULAR ENDURANCE Ability to repeat & maintain contractions without fatigue. Trains slow twitch fibres Doesn’t make to muscle thicker Ability to repeat & maintain contractions without fatigue. Trains slow twitch fibres Doesn’t make to muscle thicker

6 STATIC VS DYNAMIC Static: When a muscle maintains contraction without changing length. Eg. A scrum in football Dynamic: Muscles changing length. Eg. Running or rowing Static: When a muscle maintains contraction without changing length. Eg. A scrum in football Dynamic: Muscles changing length. Eg. Running or rowing

7 BENEFITS Increased strength, power & muscular endurance. Lean body mass Correcting muscular imbalances in the body. Reduce risk of injury Control weight - increases body’s metabolic rate. Decreases rate of osteoporosis Reduces muscle degeneration associated with aging. Increased strength, power & muscular endurance. Lean body mass Correcting muscular imbalances in the body. Reduce risk of injury Control weight - increases body’s metabolic rate. Decreases rate of osteoporosis Reduces muscle degeneration associated with aging.

8 POWER The ability to do strength performances quickly - ‘explosive power’. Makes muscles thicker Trains fast twitch fibres The ability to do strength performances quickly - ‘explosive power’. Makes muscles thicker Trains fast twitch fibres

9 MUSCULAR GAIN & BODY SHAPING Changing muscle size, shape, tone & definition are the main goals in resistance training. The first change noticed for a beginner is the change in muscle tone. Changing muscle size, shape, tone & definition are the main goals in resistance training. The first change noticed for a beginner is the change in muscle tone.

10 COMPETITIVE WEIGHT LIFTING & BODY BUILDING Traditionally, resistance training has been used for this area. Weightlifters aim to list the greatest amount of weight for their body mass. Body builders aim to have a physique of well developed muscles and minimal body fat. Competitors are judged on the visual attributes of their physique- muscle size, symmetry, definition and proportion. Traditionally, resistance training has been used for this area. Weightlifters aim to list the greatest amount of weight for their body mass. Body builders aim to have a physique of well developed muscles and minimal body fat. Competitors are judged on the visual attributes of their physique- muscle size, symmetry, definition and proportion.

11 MUSCLES OF THE BODY The human body has over 640 skeletal muscles. These are attached to the bones of the skeleton and run across joints in the body. Muscles make up to 40% of our body’s weight. The human body has over 640 skeletal muscles. These are attached to the bones of the skeleton and run across joints in the body. Muscles make up to 40% of our body’s weight.

12 MUSCLE CONTRACTION Skeletal muscle is made up of many bundles of muscle fibres. These fibres expand and contract like an elastic band. When muscle fibres contract, they over lap each other to shorten the muscle, when the muscle relaxes, the fibres return to their normal length. Skeletal muscle is made up of many bundles of muscle fibres. These fibres expand and contract like an elastic band. When muscle fibres contract, they over lap each other to shorten the muscle, when the muscle relaxes, the fibres return to their normal length.

13 PRINCIPLE ACTIONS OF MUSCLES Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Elevation Depression Supination Pronation Rotation Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Elevation Depression Supination Pronation Rotation

14 FLEXION Decreasing the angle of a joint, bringing bones together. Eg flexing (bending) the biceps Decreasing the angle of a joint, bringing bones together. Eg flexing (bending) the biceps

15 EXTENSION Increasing the angle of a joint, such as stretching the arm. Eg extending the bicep Increasing the angle of a joint, such as stretching the arm. Eg extending the bicep

16 ABDUCTION Moving a bone away from the midline of the body. Eg moving the arm laterally (sideways). Moving a bone away from the midline of the body. Eg moving the arm laterally (sideways).

17 ADDUCTION Moving a bone towards the midline of the body. Eg moving the arm medially and inwards. Moving a bone towards the midline of the body. Eg moving the arm medially and inwards.

18 ELEVATION Lifting upwards. Eg shoulder blades when shrugging your shoulders. Leg raises etc Lifting upwards. Eg shoulder blades when shrugging your shoulders. Leg raises etc

19 DEPRESSION Opposite of elevation - downward motion. Eg putting your hand down after asking a question. Lowering your leg in a leg raise. Opposite of elevation - downward motion. Eg putting your hand down after asking a question. Lowering your leg in a leg raise.

20 SUPINATION Movement of the forearm to turn palm upwards. Eg “what ever!!” Movement of the forearm to turn palm upwards. Eg “what ever!!”

21 PRONATION Opposite of supination - to turn the palms downwards. Eg push ups Opposite of supination - to turn the palms downwards. Eg push ups

22 ROTATION Moving a bone around its long axis. Eg - shoulder, wrists, ankle etc. Moving a bone around its long axis. Eg - shoulder, wrists, ankle etc.

23 AGONIST & ANTAGONIST Agonist: the main muscle that contracts to produce the action. Antagonist: resists and relaxes during the action. Eg: in a bicep curl which muscle in the antagonist?? Leg extension, which muscle is the agonist? Agonist: the main muscle that contracts to produce the action. Antagonist: resists and relaxes during the action. Eg: in a bicep curl which muscle in the antagonist?? Leg extension, which muscle is the agonist?

24 TRAINING METHODS Different types of training methods are used to achieve specific results. These include the type of muscular contraction, equipment and techniques. Types of muscular contraction: ISOTONIC ISOMETRIC ISOKINETIC Different types of training methods are used to achieve specific results. These include the type of muscular contraction, equipment and techniques. Types of muscular contraction: ISOTONIC ISOMETRIC ISOKINETIC

25 ISOMETRIC A static contraction where the muscles do not change length Eg Holding a weight in front at shoulder height. Pushing against a wall Carrying a plate of food etc Arm wrestle A static contraction where the muscles do not change length Eg Holding a weight in front at shoulder height. Pushing against a wall Carrying a plate of food etc Arm wrestle

26 ISOTONIC When muscles contract, shortening and lengthening. Eg, bicep curl Sit ups Two types: Concentric: muscle shortens to lift load Eccentric:muscle lengthens as load is lowered. When muscles contract, shortening and lengthening. Eg, bicep curl Sit ups Two types: Concentric: muscle shortens to lift load Eccentric:muscle lengthens as load is lowered.

27 ISOKINETIC Eg - swimmers against jet running with cable Eg - swimmers against jet running with cable

28 RESISTANCE ACTIVITIES When you train, the method of resistance you use can greatly affect the result and outcome of the exercise. Knowledge & understanding of the different types of resistance is required before designing a suitable resistance program.

29 TYPES OF RESISTANCE ACTIVITIES Callisthenics Free weights Machine systems Aquatic activities plyometrics Callisthenics Free weights Machine systems Aquatic activities plyometrics

30 CALLISTHENICS A series of strengthening and stretching exercises that is performed using one’s own body weight. Eg - push ups - chin ups - dips etc A series of strengthening and stretching exercises that is performed using one’s own body weight. Eg - push ups - chin ups - dips etc

31 PLYOMETRICS Exercises used to build maximal strength in short explosive movements. Eg jumping over blocks with no rest in between. pike jump Exercises used to build maximal strength in short explosive movements. Eg jumping over blocks with no rest in between. pike jump

32 FREE WEIGHTS Using dumb-bells or other free weight equipment to develop sports specific strength. The most purest form of isotonic exercise Using dumb-bells or other free weight equipment to develop sports specific strength. The most purest form of isotonic exercise

33 MACHINE SYSTEMS There are a large variety of machine systems. From pin to plate, air operated and isokinetic. Each have their own advantages and disadvantages.

34 AQUATIC ACTIVITIES Water is 12 times more dense than air, and therefore offers a good form of resistance. The levels of resistance can be increased through deeper water and faster movements. Water is 12 times more dense than air, and therefore offers a good form of resistance. The levels of resistance can be increased through deeper water and faster movements.

35 TRAINING TERMS Repetitions (REPS) Sets Resistance Rest Repetition maximum (RM) Speed of lift Repetitions (REPS) Sets Resistance Rest Repetition maximum (RM) Speed of lift

36 REPS Refers to the number of times you repeat an exercise without resting. Eg 10 biceps curls Lower reps and heavier weights = strength and size. Higher reps and lighter weights = endurance Refers to the number of times you repeat an exercise without resting. Eg 10 biceps curls Lower reps and heavier weights = strength and size. Higher reps and lighter weights = endurance

37 SETS Refers to the number of groups of repetitions you perform with rest in between. Eg 10 reps of bicep curls, repeated two times = 2 sets of 10 reps Refers to the number of groups of repetitions you perform with rest in between. Eg 10 reps of bicep curls, repeated two times = 2 sets of 10 reps

38 REST The time taken between sets for the muscle to recover and replace the fuel used during the set. The time taken to rest should correspond with the intensity of the lift Eg maximal training = long rest (mins) endurance prog = short rest (30sec) The time taken between sets for the muscle to recover and replace the fuel used during the set. The time taken to rest should correspond with the intensity of the lift Eg maximal training = long rest (mins) endurance prog = short rest (30sec)

39 RESISTANCE The load or amount of weight you lift in a movement. As the muscle gets stronger, the load should be increased to ensure strength gain continues. The load or amount of weight you lift in a movement. As the muscle gets stronger, the load should be increased to ensure strength gain continues.

40 SPEED OF LIFT How fast you perform the movement. Fast = power training Medium = strength & endurance Slow = increase muscle size How fast you perform the movement. Fast = power training Medium = strength & endurance Slow = increase muscle size

41 Repetition maximum (RM) The maximum number of repetitions you can do with a given load. 1RM= amount of weight you can lift once only. 10RM= the weight you can lift ten times exactly. The maximum number of repetitions you can do with a given load. 1RM= amount of weight you can lift once only. 10RM= the weight you can lift ten times exactly.

42 CALCULATING YOUR 1RM You need to warm doing an exercise similar to what you will be using for your 1RM Chose a machine and do 15 reps on a light load. Set it at a load you think you can do only once Perform the lift Rest for 2 min Increase weight gradually each time until you cannot lift the weight. You need to warm doing an exercise similar to what you will be using for your 1RM Chose a machine and do 15 reps on a light load. Set it at a load you think you can do only once Perform the lift Rest for 2 min Increase weight gradually each time until you cannot lift the weight.

43 BUILDING MUSCLE SIZE USING 1 RM To build muscle size = 6-20reps at % of 1RM for 1-5 sets at slow speed 1-2min rest. Eg Tarzan 1RM = 50kg He will do between 6-20 reps of 30-40kg for 1-5 sets with 1-2 min rest. To build muscle size = 6-20reps at % of 1RM for 1-5 sets at slow speed 1-2min rest. Eg Tarzan 1RM = 50kg He will do between 6-20 reps of 30-40kg for 1-5 sets with 1-2 min rest.

44 RESISTANCE PROGRAMMING All people new to weight training should start with a gentle all over body strengthening program. Once a basic level of physical conditioning has been achieved, you can design a more personal and tailored resistance program.

45 STEPS TO DESIGN A PROGRAM Goals Exercises Method Split programs Overload techniques Monitoring progress Goals Exercises Method Split programs Overload techniques Monitoring progress

46 GOALS What are the client’s goals? -build strength? -increase endurance? -Lose body fat? -etc What are the client’s goals? -build strength? -increase endurance? -Lose body fat? -etc

47 EXERCISES When first starting = strengthen whole body. Use low - med weight with 12 reps per set. Movement guided machine are better as the client can become familiar with how to use their muscles correctly. Challenge with other weights as they progress When first starting = strengthen whole body. Use low - med weight with 12 reps per set. Movement guided machine are better as the client can become familiar with how to use their muscles correctly. Challenge with other weights as they progress

48 METHOD Useful guidelines: Work large muscle groups first. Use movements that involve more than one muscle group first before moving to isolation exercises. Plan sets and reps always warm up / cool down - stretch Useful guidelines: Work large muscle groups first. Use movements that involve more than one muscle group first before moving to isolation exercises. Plan sets and reps always warm up / cool down - stretch

49 SPLIT PROGRAMS Method used for those who train at least days a week. Involves exhausting different muscle on different days ( split routine) or doing different exercises for the same muscles the next day ( split prog ). Method used for those who train at least days a week. Involves exhausting different muscle on different days ( split routine) or doing different exercises for the same muscles the next day ( split prog ).

50 Example of split routine Monday & Thursday = lower & upper back, biceps, abs Tuesday & Friday = Chest, triceps, shoulders Wednesday & Saturday = gluteals, quads, hamstrings, calves. Monday & Thursday = lower & upper back, biceps, abs Tuesday & Friday = Chest, triceps, shoulders Wednesday & Saturday = gluteals, quads, hamstrings, calves.

51 OVERLOAD TECHNIQUES Blitzing Forced repetitions Pyramiding Pre-exhaustion Super sets Blitzing Forced repetitions Pyramiding Pre-exhaustion Super sets

52 BLITZING: bombarding ONE muscle group (similar to a split routine). Eg only doing upper back exercises. FORCED REPETITIONS: uses a lifter or ‘spotter’ to assist in lifting until they can no longer hold the weight. BLITZING: bombarding ONE muscle group (similar to a split routine). Eg only doing upper back exercises. FORCED REPETITIONS: uses a lifter or ‘spotter’ to assist in lifting until they can no longer hold the weight.

53 PYRAMIDING: increasing the resistance with each set, no rest in between. Reduce number of reps with each ‘layer’. Can also use reverse pyramiding by starting with heaviest weight and working down.

54 PRE EXHAUSTION: fatigue one muscle during an exercise then immediately follow up with another exercise that includes other muscles but incorporates that muscle as well. Eg doing leg extensions followed by set of squats. PRE EXHAUSTION: fatigue one muscle during an exercise then immediately follow up with another exercise that includes other muscles but incorporates that muscle as well. Eg doing leg extensions followed by set of squats.

55 SUPER SETS: combining several exercises for one muscle group with no rest between sets, Eg shoulder press - push ups - shoulder press etc. SUPER SETS: combining several exercises for one muscle group with no rest between sets, Eg shoulder press - push ups - shoulder press etc.

56 MONITORING PROGRESS Use a program card weight should be increased as the muscle become used to the load Usually after 6 weeks, prog needs to change due to the body becoming used to the exercises. Training plateaus usually occur at some stage where the is no improvements in physical conditioning. Use a program card weight should be increased as the muscle become used to the load Usually after 6 weeks, prog needs to change due to the body becoming used to the exercises. Training plateaus usually occur at some stage where the is no improvements in physical conditioning.

57 SAFETY WARM UP: at least 10 min SAFE USE OF EQUIPMENT: use sensible loads, ensure locked in place, adjust seats etc SPOTTING: know the correct spotting technique, make sure YOU can lift the weight, concentrate. CORRECT TECHNIQUE: exhale during lift, inhale when lowering, dont lock joints, plates shouldn’t touch when using machines COURTESY: use a towel, share machine between sets. WARM UP: at least 10 min SAFE USE OF EQUIPMENT: use sensible loads, ensure locked in place, adjust seats etc SPOTTING: know the correct spotting technique, make sure YOU can lift the weight, concentrate. CORRECT TECHNIQUE: exhale during lift, inhale when lowering, dont lock joints, plates shouldn’t touch when using machines COURTESY: use a towel, share machine between sets.


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