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Presentation on theme: "RESISTANCE TRAINING."— Presentation transcript:


Resistance training is a method whereby we use our muscles to move loads greater than we are normally capable of doing. Our muscles become stronger, more dense and more shapely.

Strength Power Muscular gain / body shaping Muscular endurance Competitive weightlifting and body building.

4 STRENGTH The ability to exert force against a resistance.
Makes your muscles thicker Trains fast twitch fibres Can be static or dynamic Static - muscles do not change in length eg scrum or weight lifting Dynamic - muscles change length eg running, rowing etc

5 MUSCULAR ENDURANCE Ability to repeat & maintain contractions without fatigue. Trains slow twitch fibres Doesn’t make to muscle thicker Eg, sports where repetitive movement in used eg cycling, running, swimming etc. NOTE: marathon runners are usually slim -long muscles (ST) and sprinters, weight lifters ect more stocky (FT)

6 STATIC VS DYNAMIC Static: When a muscle maintains contraction without changing length. Eg. A scrum in football Dynamic: Muscles changing length. Eg. Running or rowing

7 BENEFITS Increased strength , power & muscular endurance.
Lean body mass Correcting muscular imbalances in the body. Reduce risk of injury Control weight - increases body’s metabolic rate. Decreases rate of osteoporosis Reduces muscle degeneration associated with aging. Muscular imbalances = broken bones - no muscle use for weeks. Need resistance training to build back up. Too much weight in chest / back = have to even out to avoid hunch back. Stroke victims = one side paralysed - need to re build muscle tone.

8 POWER The ability to do strength performances quickly - ‘explosive power’. Makes muscles thicker Trains fast twitch fibres Eg racket sports, jumping in long jump etc.

Changing muscle size, shape, tone & definition are the main goals in resistance training. The first change noticed for a beginner is the change in muscle tone. Some people want tone some want shape (big). You have to tone first before you can shape.

Traditionally, resistance training has been used for this area. Weightlifters aim to list the greatest amount of weight for their body mass. Body builders aim to have a physique of well developed muscles and minimal body fat. Competitors are judged on the visual attributes of their physique- muscle size, symmetry, definition and proportion. Weight lifting has weight divisions same as boxing. Body builders work for hours in the gym to ensure all muscles are in proportion, eg legs have to much upper body. Can not concentrate on only one area of the body. Eg footballers WORK SHEETS ON USES OF RES. TRAINING. SET UP TABLE ON PAGE 203 OF SLR - identifying athletes who would use each type of resistance training.

11 MUSCLES OF THE BODY The human body has over 640 skeletal muscles.
These are attached to the bones of the skeleton and run across joints in the body. Muscles make up to 40% of our body’s weight. Identify major muscles using worksheets on p 61 & 63 of human body atlas. (put on board and write answers. Extensive muscles on thigh p 85 & 86 Use same blank worksheets to label muscles.. Repeat as first activity next lesson. Colour in major muscles for homework p 61 anatomy colouring book. FLASH CARDS Muscle bingo

12 MUSCLE CONTRACTION Skeletal muscle is made up of many bundles of muscle fibres. These fibres expand and contract like an elastic band. When muscle fibres contract, they over lap each other to shorten the muscle, when the muscle relaxes, the fibres return to their normal length. Use picture on page 64 of human atlas.

Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Elevation Depression Supination Pronation Rotation The movements produced by muscles depend on their position, the other muscles it may work with and the joint it crosses. Complete definitions on worksheet and draw picture with arrows of movement. Start table of main action before agonist & antagonist slides.

14 FLEXION Decreasing the angle of a joint, bringing bones together.
Eg flexing (bending) the biceps Draw with arrow

15 EXTENSION Increasing the angle of a joint, such as stretching the arm.
Eg extending the bicep

16 ABDUCTION Moving a bone away from the midline of the body.
Eg moving the arm laterally (sideways). Think of abduction as when you are abducted you are taken ‘away’.

17 ADDUCTION Moving a bone towards the midline of the body.
Eg moving the arm medially and inwards. Think of it as ‘adding together’.

18 ELEVATION Lifting upwards.
Eg shoulder blades when shrugging your shoulders. Leg raises etc

19 DEPRESSION Opposite of elevation - downward motion.
Eg putting your hand down after asking a question. Lowering your leg in a leg raise.

20 SUPINATION Movement of the forearm to turn palm upwards.
Eg “what ever!!”

21 PRONATION Opposite of supination - to turn the palms downwards.
Eg push ups Super man should have been called pronation man

22 ROTATION Moving a bone around its long axis.
Eg - shoulder, wrists, ankle etc.

23 AGONIST & ANTAGONIST Agonist: the main muscle that contracts to produce the action. Antagonist: resists and relaxes during the action. Eg: in a bicep curl which muscle in the antagonist?? Leg extension, which muscle is the agonist? In any body movement there is a main muscle that contracts and a muscle that relaxes Complete rest of table Provide same diagram page 61 and colour the agonist and antagonist of major muscle groups. Do activity holding weight and partner feels top muscles p 210 SLR

24 TRAINING METHODS Different types of training methods are used to achieve specific results. These include the type of muscular contraction, equipment and techniques. Types of muscular contraction: ISOTONIC ISOMETRIC ISOKINETIC

25 ISOMETRIC A static contraction where the muscles do not change length
Eg Holding a weight in front at shoulder height. Pushing against a wall Carrying a plate of food etc Arm wrestle

26 ISOTONIC When muscles contract, shortening and lengthening.
Eg, bicep curl Sit ups Two types: Concentric: muscle shortens to lift load Eccentric:muscle lengthens as load is lowered. Think of ‘building tone’.

27 ISOKINETIC Eg - swimmers against jet running with cable
Speed of the movement is kept constant while the tension adjusts according to the force applied by the individual Complete worksheet

When you train, the method of resistance you use can greatly affect the result and outcome of the exercise. Knowledge & understanding of the different types of resistance is required before designing a suitable resistance program. People only concentrate on one thing eg free weights and get minimal results that plateau. May need to challenge on a machine weight.

Callisthenics Free weights Machine systems Aquatic activities plyometrics

30 CALLISTHENICS A series of strengthening and stretching exercises that is performed using one’s own body weight. Eg - push ups - chin ups - dips etc What more modern exercises could come under this type of resistance training?? Yoga, pilates etc

31 PLYOMETRICS Exercises used to build maximal strength in short explosive movements. Eg jumping over blocks with no rest in between. pike jump What sports would use this for training - basketball, rugby, netball, volleyball etc.

32 FREE WEIGHTS Using dumb-bells or other free weight equipment to develop sports specific strength. The most purest form of isotonic exercise

33 MACHINE SYSTEMS There are a large variety of machine systems. From pin to plate, air operated and isokinetic. Each have their own advantages and disadvantages.

34 AQUATIC ACTIVITIES Water is 12 times more dense than air, and therefore offers a good form of resistance. The levels of resistance can be increased through deeper water and faster movements. Due to its lack of pressure of joints, very popular exercise among elderly people. Worksheets Write up page 217 SLR on board. Students allocate if free weights or machine would be better for each goal.

35 TRAINING TERMS Repetitions (REPS) Sets Resistance Rest
Repetition maximum (RM) Speed of lift Put in work book so can take to gym.

36 REPS Refers to the number of times you repeat an exercise without resting. Eg 10 biceps curls Lower reps and heavier weights = strength and size. Higher reps and lighter weights = endurance

37 SETS Refers to the number of groups of repetitions you perform with rest in between. Eg 10 reps of bicep curls, repeated two times = 2 sets of 10 reps With a rest in between

38 REST The time taken between sets for the muscle to recover and replace the fuel used during the set. The time taken to rest should correspond with the intensity of the lift Eg maximal training = long rest (mins) endurance prog = short rest (30sec) Why do they require shorter / longer rests ???

39 RESISTANCE The load or amount of weight you lift in a movement.
As the muscle gets stronger, the load should be increased to ensure strength gain continues.

40 SPEED OF LIFT How fast you perform the movement. Fast = power training
Medium = strength & endurance Slow = increase muscle size

41 Repetition maximum (RM)
The maximum number of repetitions you can do with a given load. 1RM= amount of weight you can lift once only. 10RM= the weight you can lift ten times exactly.

42 CALCULATING YOUR 1RM You need to warm doing an exercise similar to what you will be using for your 1RM Chose a machine and do 15 reps on a light load. Set it at a load you think you can do only once Perform the lift Rest for 2 min Increase weight gradually each time until you cannot lift the weight.

To build muscle size = 6-20reps at 60-80% of 1RM for 1-5 sets at slow speed 1-2min rest. Eg Tarzan 1RM = 50kg He will do between 6-20 reps of 30-40kg for 1-5 sets with 1-2 min rest.

All people new to weight training should start with a gentle all over body strengthening program. Once a basic level of physical conditioning has been achieved, you can design a more personal and tailored resistance program.

Goals Exercises Method Split programs Overload techniques Monitoring progress Each one of these has to be successfully addressed in order to fulfil and get results from a program.

46 GOALS What are the client’s goals? -build strength?
increase endurance? Lose body fat? etc They are paying you to meet their needs. It is recommended they have 2 -3 training days on non consecutive days.

47 EXERCISES When first starting = strengthen whole body.
Use low - med weight with 12 reps per set. Movement guided machine are better as the client can become familiar with how to use their muscles correctly. Challenge with other weights as they progress

48 METHOD Useful guidelines: Work large muscle groups first.
Use movements that involve more than one muscle group first before moving to isolation exercises. Plan sets and reps always warm up / cool down - stretch

49 SPLIT PROGRAMS Method used for those who train at least days a week. Involves exhausting different muscle on different days ( split routine) or doing different exercises for the same muscles the next day ( split prog ).

50 Example of split routine
Monday & Thursday = lower & upper back, biceps, abs Tuesday & Friday = Chest, triceps, shoulders Wednesday & Saturday = gluteals, quads, hamstrings, calves.

51 OVERLOAD TECHNIQUES Blitzing Forced repetitions Pyramiding
Pre-exhaustion Super sets Pushing the body to become stringer, bigger and more powerful

52 BLITZING: bombarding ONE muscle group (similar to a split routine)
BLITZING: bombarding ONE muscle group (similar to a split routine). Eg only doing upper back exercises. FORCED REPETITIONS: uses a lifter or ‘spotter’ to assist in lifting until they can no longer hold the weight.

53 PYRAMIDING: increasing the resistance with each set, no rest in between. Reduce number of reps with each ‘layer’. Can also use reverse pyramiding by starting with heaviest weight and working down.

54 PRE EXHAUSTION: fatigue one muscle during an exercise then immediately follow up with another exercise that includes other muscles but incorporates that muscle as well. Eg doing leg extensions followed by set of squats.

55 SUPER SETS: combining several exercises for one muscle group with no rest between sets,
Eg shoulder press - push ups - shoulder press etc.

56 MONITORING PROGRESS Use a program card
weight should be increased as the muscle become used to the load Usually after 6 weeks, prog needs to change due to the body becoming used to the exercises. Training plateaus usually occur at some stage where the is no improvements in physical conditioning. Program card page 220 SLR

57 SAFETY WARM UP: at least 10 min
SAFE USE OF EQUIPMENT: use sensible loads, ensure locked in place, adjust seats etc SPOTTING: know the correct spotting technique, make sure YOU can lift the weight, concentrate. CORRECT TECHNIQUE: exhale during lift, inhale when lowering, dont lock joints, plates shouldn’t touch when using machines COURTESY: use a towel, share machine between sets.


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