2WHAT IS RESISTANCE TRAINING? Resistance training is a method whereby we use our muscles to move loads greater than we are normally capable of doing.Our muscles become stronger, more dense and more shapely.
3USES OF RESISTANCE TRAINING StrengthPowerMuscular gain / body shapingMuscular enduranceCompetitive weightlifting and body building.
4STRENGTH The ability to exert force against a resistance. Makes your muscles thickerTrains fast twitch fibresCan be static or dynamicStatic - muscles do not change in length eg scrum or weight liftingDynamic - muscles change length eg running, rowing etc
5MUSCULAR ENDURANCEAbility to repeat & maintain contractions without fatigue.Trains slow twitch fibresDoesn’t make to muscle thickerEg, sports where repetitive movement in used eg cycling, running, swimming etc.NOTE: marathon runners are usually slim -long muscles (ST) and sprinters, weight lifters ect more stocky (FT)
6STATIC VS DYNAMICStatic: When a muscle maintains contraction without changing length. Eg. A scrum in footballDynamic: Muscles changing length. Eg. Running or rowing
7BENEFITS Increased strength , power & muscular endurance. Lean body massCorrecting muscular imbalances in the body.Reduce risk of injuryControl weight - increases body’s metabolic rate.Decreases rate of osteoporosisReduces muscle degeneration associated with aging.Muscular imbalances = broken bones - no muscle use for weeks. Need resistance training to build back up.Too much weight in chest / back = have to even out to avoid hunch back.Stroke victims = one side paralysed - need to re build muscle tone.
8POWERThe ability to do strength performances quickly - ‘explosive power’.Makes muscles thickerTrains fast twitch fibresEg racket sports, jumping in long jump etc.
9MUSCULAR GAIN & BODY SHAPING Changing muscle size, shape, tone & definition are the main goals in resistance training.The first change noticed for a beginner is the change in muscle tone.Some people want tone some want shape (big). You have to tone first before you can shape.
10COMPETITIVE WEIGHT LIFTING & BODY BUILDING Traditionally, resistance training has been used for this area.Weightlifters aim to list the greatest amount of weight for their body mass.Body builders aim to have a physique of well developed muscles and minimal body fat.Competitors are judged on the visual attributes of their physique- muscle size, symmetry, definition and proportion.Weight lifting has weight divisions same as boxing.Body builders work for hours in the gym to ensure all muscles are in proportion, eg legs have to much upper body. Can not concentrate on only one area of the body. Eg footballersWORK SHEETS ON USES OF RES. TRAINING.SET UP TABLE ON PAGE 203 OF SLR - identifying athletes who would use each type of resistance training.
11MUSCLES OF THE BODY The human body has over 640 skeletal muscles. These are attached to the bones of the skeleton and run across joints in the body.Muscles make up to 40% of our body’s weight.Identify major muscles using worksheets on p 61 & 63 of human body atlas. (put on board and write answers.Extensive muscles on thigh p 85 & 86Use same blank worksheets to label muscles..Repeat as first activity next lesson.Colour in major muscles for homework p 61 anatomy colouring book.FLASH CARDSMuscle bingo
12MUSCLE CONTRACTIONSkeletal muscle is made up of many bundles of muscle fibres.These fibres expand and contract like an elastic band.When muscle fibres contract, they over lap each other to shorten the muscle, when the muscle relaxes, the fibres return to their normal length.Use picture on page 64 of human atlas.
13PRINCIPLE ACTIONS OF MUSCLES FlexionExtensionAbductionAdductionElevationDepressionSupinationPronationRotationThe movements produced by muscles depend on their position, the other muscles it may work with and the joint it crosses.Complete definitions on worksheet and draw picture with arrows of movement.Start table of main action before agonist & antagonist slides.
14FLEXION Decreasing the angle of a joint, bringing bones together. Eg flexing (bending) the bicepsDraw with arrow
15EXTENSION Increasing the angle of a joint, such as stretching the arm. Eg extending the bicep
16ABDUCTION Moving a bone away from the midline of the body. Eg moving the arm laterally (sideways).Think of abduction as when you are abducted you are taken ‘away’.
17ADDUCTION Moving a bone towards the midline of the body. Eg moving the arm medially and inwards.Think of it as ‘adding together’.
18ELEVATION Lifting upwards. Eg shoulder blades when shrugging your shoulders.Leg raises etc
19DEPRESSION Opposite of elevation - downward motion. Eg putting your hand down after asking a question.Lowering your leg in a leg raise.
20SUPINATION Movement of the forearm to turn palm upwards. Eg “what ever!!”
21PRONATION Opposite of supination - to turn the palms downwards. Eg push upsSuper man should have been called pronation man
22ROTATION Moving a bone around its long axis. Eg - shoulder, wrists, ankle etc.
23AGONIST & ANTAGONISTAgonist: the main muscle that contracts to produce the action.Antagonist: resists and relaxes during the action.Eg: in a bicep curl which muscle in the antagonist??Leg extension, which muscle is the agonist?In any body movement there is a main muscle that contracts and a muscle that relaxesComplete rest of tableProvide same diagram page 61 and colour the agonist and antagonist of major muscle groups.Do activity holding weight and partner feels top muscles p 210 SLR
24TRAINING METHODSDifferent types of training methods are used to achieve specific results. These include the type of muscular contraction, equipment and techniques.Types of muscular contraction:ISOTONICISOMETRICISOKINETIC
25ISOMETRIC A static contraction where the muscles do not change length Eg Holding a weight in front at shoulder height.Pushing against a wallCarrying a plate of food etcArm wrestle
26ISOTONIC When muscles contract, shortening and lengthening. Eg, bicep curlSit upsTwo types:Concentric: muscle shortens to lift loadEccentric:muscle lengthens as load is lowered.Think of ‘building tone’.
27ISOKINETIC Eg - swimmers against jet running with cable Speed of the movement is kept constant while the tension adjusts according to the force applied by the individualComplete worksheet
28RESISTANCE ACTIVITIES When you train, the method of resistance you use can greatly affect the result and outcome of the exercise. Knowledge & understanding of the different types of resistance is required before designing a suitable resistance program.People only concentrate on one thing eg free weights and get minimal results that plateau. May need to challenge on a machine weight.
29TYPES OF RESISTANCE ACTIVITIES CallisthenicsFree weightsMachine systemsAquatic activitiesplyometrics
30CALLISTHENICSA series of strengthening and stretching exercises that is performed using one’s own body weight.Eg - push ups- chin ups- dips etcWhat more modern exercises could come under this type of resistance training?? Yoga, pilates etc
31PLYOMETRICSExercises used to build maximal strength in short explosive movements.Egjumping over blocks with no rest in between.pike jumpWhat sports would use this for training - basketball, rugby, netball, volleyball etc.
32FREE WEIGHTSUsing dumb-bells or other free weight equipment to develop sports specific strength.The most purest form of isotonic exercise
33MACHINE SYSTEMSThere are a large variety of machine systems. From pin to plate, air operated and isokinetic. Each have their own advantages and disadvantages.
34AQUATIC ACTIVITIESWater is 12 times more dense than air, and therefore offers a good form of resistance.The levels of resistance can be increased through deeper water and faster movements.Due to its lack of pressure of joints, very popular exercise among elderly people.WorksheetsWrite up page 217 SLR on board. Students allocate if free weights or machine would be better for each goal.
35TRAINING TERMS Repetitions (REPS) Sets Resistance Rest Repetition maximum (RM)Speed of liftPut in work book so can take to gym.
36REPSRefers to the number of times you repeat an exercise without resting.Eg 10 biceps curlsLower reps and heavier weights = strength and size.Higher reps and lighter weights = endurance
37SETSRefers to the number of groups of repetitions you perform with rest in between.Eg 10 reps of bicep curls, repeated two times=2 sets of 10 repsWith a rest in between
38RESTThe time taken between sets for the muscle to recover and replace the fuel used during the set.The time taken to rest should correspond with the intensity of the liftEg maximal training = long rest (mins)endurance prog = short rest (30sec)Why do they require shorter / longer rests ???
39RESISTANCE The load or amount of weight you lift in a movement. As the muscle gets stronger, the load should be increased to ensure strength gain continues.
40SPEED OF LIFT How fast you perform the movement. Fast = power training Medium = strength & enduranceSlow = increase muscle size
41Repetition maximum (RM) The maximum number of repetitions you can do with a given load.1RM= amount of weight you can lift once only.10RM= the weight you can lift ten times exactly.
42CALCULATING YOUR 1RMYou need to warm doing an exercise similar to what you will be using for your 1RMChose a machine and do 15 reps on a light load.Set it at a load you think you can do only oncePerform the liftRest for 2 minIncrease weight gradually each time until you cannot lift the weight.
43BUILDING MUSCLE SIZE USING 1 RM To build muscle size = 6-20reps at 60-80% of 1RM for 1-5 sets at slow speed 1-2min rest.Eg Tarzan 1RM = 50kgHe will do between 6-20 reps of 30-40kg for 1-5 sets with 1-2 min rest.
44RESISTANCE PROGRAMMING All people new to weight training should start with a gentle all over body strengthening program. Once a basic level of physical conditioning has been achieved, you can design a more personal and tailored resistance program.
45STEPS TO DESIGN A PROGRAM GoalsExercisesMethodSplit programsOverload techniquesMonitoring progressEach one of these has to be successfully addressed in order to fulfil and get results from a program.
46GOALS What are the client’s goals? -build strength? increase endurance?Lose body fat?etcThey are paying you to meet their needs. It is recommended they have 2 -3 training days on non consecutive days.
47EXERCISES When first starting = strengthen whole body. Use low - med weight with 12 reps per set.Movement guided machine are better as the client can become familiar with how to use their muscles correctly.Challenge with other weights as they progress
48METHOD Useful guidelines: Work large muscle groups first. Use movements that involve more than one muscle group first before moving to isolation exercises.Plan sets and repsalways warm up / cool down - stretch
49SPLIT PROGRAMSMethod used for those who train at least days a week.Involves exhausting different muscle on different days ( split routine) or doing different exercises for the same muscles the next day ( split prog ).
51OVERLOAD TECHNIQUES Blitzing Forced repetitions Pyramiding Pre-exhaustionSuper setsPushing the body to become stringer, bigger and more powerful
52BLITZING: bombarding ONE muscle group (similar to a split routine) BLITZING: bombarding ONE muscle group (similar to a split routine). Eg only doing upper back exercises.FORCED REPETITIONS: uses a lifter or ‘spotter’ to assist in lifting until they can no longer hold the weight.
53PYRAMIDING: increasing the resistance with each set, no rest in between. Reduce number of reps with each ‘layer’. Can also use reverse pyramiding by starting with heaviest weight and working down.
54PRE EXHAUSTION: fatigue one muscle during an exercise then immediately follow up with another exercise that includes other muscles but incorporates that muscle as well.Eg doing leg extensions followed by set of squats.
55SUPER SETS: combining several exercises for one muscle group with no rest between sets, Eg shoulder press - push ups - shoulder press etc.
56MONITORING PROGRESS Use a program card weight should be increased as the muscle become used to the loadUsually after 6 weeks, prog needs to change due to the body becoming used to the exercises.Training plateaus usually occur at some stage where the is no improvements in physical conditioning.Program card page 220 SLR
57SAFETY WARM UP: at least 10 min SAFE USE OF EQUIPMENT: use sensible loads, ensure locked in place, adjust seats etcSPOTTING: know the correct spotting technique, make sure YOU can lift the weight, concentrate.CORRECT TECHNIQUE: exhale during lift, inhale when lowering, dont lock joints, plates shouldn’t touch when using machinesCOURTESY: use a towel, share machine between sets.