Presentation on theme: "METHODS OF TRAINING This refers to the type of training we participate in."— Presentation transcript:
METHODS OF TRAINING This refers to the type of training we participate in.
CONTINUOUS Continuous training involves CONTINUOUS ACTIVITY AT AN INTENSITY WHERE A PERSON CAN KEEP GOING WITHOUT FATIGUING RAPIDLY. Various forms of continuous training include: RUNNING, SWIMMING, CYCLING,POWER WALKING, ROWING, PADDLING, SOME EXERCISE CLASSES. To achieve aerobic benefit, a person should aim to work with their heart rate elevated to a steady state for at least 20 MINUTES and should aim for at least 3 sessions a week.
FARTLEK Fartlek is a Scandinavian word which means SPEED PLAY and involves CONTINUOUS ACTIVITY, BUT WITH BURSTS OF SPEED ADDED IN. It can also involve changing the TERRAIN and CONDITIONS in which you train. It primarily works the AEROBIC system, but also brings in the ANAEROBIC systems in bursts.
RESISTANCE (WEIGHT) TRAINING This involves using WEIGHTS AND MACHINES to provide extra resistance, and enables a person to target specific muscle groups. The equipment varies from free weights to sophisticated machines that vary the resistance or difficulty for different muscle groups. Weight training can be used to develop STRENGTH, POWER MUSCULAR ENDURANCE
WEIGHT TRAINING To understand weight training we need to work in terms of RM (Repetition Maximum). Thus 1RM is the maximum weight you can lift in one single contraction and 6RM is the maximum weight you could lift 6 times i.e. you are fatigued after 6 repetitions and can do no more. If the aim of your training is strength, your development is optimised by using low repetitions and heavy weights. Muscular endurance is optimised by using lighter weights and higher repetitions. If the object is to increase size (hypertrophy) for bodybuilding the load should be 8RM to 12 RM but the number of sets is increased, up to as much as 15 with short rest intervals in- between. There are three types of weight training: Isotonic, Isometric and Isokinetic.
TYPES OF WEIGHT TRAINING Isotonic is the term for the traditional method of weight training where the muscle works against a constant load or resistance for the whole of the movement. This is associated with free weights and many pulley type machines. Isometric is when the muscle develops tension but no movement occurs. To use a maximum contraction, one must work against an immovable object. This can be valuable in a sporting situation where you need to be strong with a limb at a particular angle or if you feel you have a weakness at a certain spot in a movement. Isokinetic involves the use of machines that are developed so the load varies during the action so the muscle has greater resistance when it is at an angle that is most efficient and lighter when the angle is least efficient. This usually involves pulley machines that have a cam that is somewhat egg-shaped instead of a round pulley. Thus when the wire is furthermost from the centre of rotation the resistance is greater and vice versa.
INTERVAL Interval training involves having alternate work and rest periods. To make the best use here you have a structured programme with set work times or distances and set rest times. For example you could have metre stride outs with one starting every 90 seconds. You can vary the work outs to suit your own goals or current fitness levels as there are many variable factors. You could change the Length of the work session The length of the rest period The intensity during the work period The number of repetitions Interval training is often split into two broad categories, long and short interval training, though there is a cross-over period between the two.
Long Interval essentially has longer work periods, but at a lower intensity. As the work period is at a lower intensity, the work/rest ratio is less. Short Interval is basically sprint training at maximum intensity, with a higher work/rest ratio. Long intervalShort Interval Long intervalShort Interval Work period15 sec – 3 min1 – 15 sec Work period15 sec – 3 min1 – 15 sec Intensity of work80 – 90%100% Intensity of work80 – 90%100% Recovery time30 sec – 3 min1 -2 mins Recovery time30 sec – 3 min1 -2 mins Work/rest ratio1:1 – 1:21:5 – 1:10 Work/rest ratio1:1 – 1:21:5 – 1:10 Repetitions3 to 205 to 15 Repetitions3 to 205 to 15 Examples4 x 800m in x 40 metres with 3 mins rest with start every in betweenminute Examples4 x 800m in x 40 metres with 3 mins rest with start every in betweenminute
CALLISTHENICS Callisthenics are essentially exercises that do not require equipment. Easy examples are things like press ups, sit ups and squat thrusts. The advantage of a planned programme of callisthenics is that it can be done anywhere as there is no equipment required. Many of the exercise to music classes, such as aerobics, could be considered to be callisthenic programmes.
PLYOMETRICS Plyometrics are essentially jumping or bounding exercises that use the natural stretch reflex within the muscle to recruit all muscle fibres for a maximal contraction. They are particularly good for developing explosive actions and therefore for developing power. The exercises include such things as depth jumps and bounding.
CIRCUIT Circuit training uses the work / rest theory but consists of a series of different exercises that concentrate on different muscle groups. This works very well in a gym with large numbers of participants able to use the equipment and space well, while still allowing individuals to work at their own level. The workout can be varied greatly to suit the aims of the participants, whether their goals are geared mainly towards strength, power or muscular endurance, even endurance to a lesser extent. You could even build in components such as agility or sports skills.
FLEXIBILITY Flexibility training is stretching to increase the resting length of muscles and improve the extent of a joint movement. Flexibility training is most effective and best done when the muscle is warm. There are three types of flexibility training - static, dynamic and PNF. Static, as the name suggests, is holding a muscle at its full length without moving. You need to hold this full stretch for at least 10 seconds. Dynamic is moving, where you take a joint or muscle to its full stretch, but keep moving. There is a danger here that you could move too quickly or strongly and take the stretch beyond the limit and damage a muscle or ligament about a joint. PNF (Proprioceptor Neuro-Muscular Facilitation) tries to slowly overcome the stretch reflex and take the muscle fractionally beyond its accepted length. It involves taking the muscle to its full stretch, then slowly building tension against a resistance. After several seconds of strong pushing, relax and take the muscle to a slightly greater stretch. This can be repeated several times.