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2 OBJECTIVES ▪ Content Objective: Students will be able to differentiate between isokinetic, isometric, and isotonic exercises by placing example exercises into their correct column on a worksheet. ▪ Content Objective 2: Students will be able to identify differences between muscular strength and muscular endurance when given a statement on a worksheet.

3 DEFINITION REVIEW ▪ Muscular Strength: The ability of a muscle group to apply a maximal force against a resistance one time. ▪ Resistance = the amount of weight lifted ▪ Muscular Endurance: The ability to repeat muscle movement over a period of time.

4 MUSCULAR STRENGTH VS. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE Muscular StrengthMuscular Endurance 4-8 Repetitions Heavier Resistance Build Muscle Mass (“bulk-up”) Use Fast-Twitch Fibers One-Rep Max 10-20 Repetitions Lighter Resistance Get in shape (“toned”) Use slow-twitch fibers Prolonged use Build Strength Cause fatigue Necessary for daily activities

5 MUSCULAR FITNESS FACTS ▪ Physical Appearance and Weight ▪ Muscle is denser than fat ▪ One pound of muscle takes up less space than one pound of fat ▪ Toned muscles help prevent the build-up of fat cells in the abdomen ▪ Toned muscles allow you to have better posture and therefore look better ▪ Additional Benefits ▪ Help you perform physical activity better ▪ Help reduce fatigue ▪ Help minimize back pain ▪ Prevent muscle injuries

6 MUSCLE ATROPHY Definition: The wasting or loss of muscle tissue ▪ Occurs from: ▪ Lack of physical activity ▪ Not using the muscles enough ▪ Medical condition that limits movement ▪ Broken bones in casts ▪ Bedridden ▪ Astronauts away from gravity ▪ Most severe type of atrophy is from neurogenic atrophy ▪ Examples: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ▪ Polio

7 SKELETAL MUSCLE REVIEW ▪ What color are slow twitch muscle fibers and why? ▪ Red because they require oxygen and therefore have a large amount of blood supply directed towards them ▪ They are slow to contract but can contract for long periods of time ▪ Best for aerobic or muscular endurance exercises because they do not fatigue easily. ▪ What color are fast twitch muscle fibers and why? ▪ White because they utilize the anaerobic pathway and therefore do not require the use of oxygen requiring a minimal amount of blood supply. ▪ They allow explosive muscular contraction and fatigue easily ▪ Best for strength and power (anaerobic activities) related activities such as sprinting ▪ We also have intermediate twitch muscle fibers which contain both slow and fast twitch characteristics.

8 THREE METHODS OF DEVELOPING MUSCULAR FITNESS 1.Isometric Exercises 2.Isotonic Exercises 3.Isokinetic Exercises

9 ISOMETRIC EXERCISE Definition: You contract (tighten) your muscles but do not change their length ▪ In an isometric exercise there is no movement of the body part ▪ Example of isometric exercise: ▪ Squeezing a tennis ball in your hand ▪ What other exercise examples can you think of? ▪ Strength improvement will occur from isometric exercises but only at the position the exercise is performed and not throughout the entire range of motion for that muscle. ▪ Disadvantage Isometric exercises are the least effective of the three in developing strength and endurance. It also may cause the persons blood pressure to raise. ▪ Benefit – They require no special equipment and can be done on a small space

10 ISOTONIC EXERCISES Definition: Exercises in which you lengthen or shorten the muscle through a full range of movement while lowering and raising a resistance. ▪ Resistance = Own body weight, barbell, dumbbell, medicine ball, kettle bell ▪ In isotonic exercises the muscle contracts to move the body part ▪ Example of Isotonic Exercises: Dumbbell Curl ▪ What other isotonic exercises can you think of? ▪ With isotonic exercises the amount of weight the muscle is able to lift varies throughout the range of motion ▪ Disadvantage: The amount of weight you can lift through the full range of motion may not overload the muscle at the strongest joint position ▪ Advantage: Excellent method of enhancing muscular fitness

11 ISOKINETIC EXERCISES Definition: A specially designed machine that mechanically allows you to overload a muscle with maximum resistance throughout the muscle’s entire range of movement at a constant speed. ▪ The isokinetic machine is set to move at a specific speed and the machine adjusts it’s resistance to constantly move at that speed ▪ Exercise Example: Dynamometer ▪ What other muscle exercise examples can you think of? ▪ Advantage: Maximum resistance is provided at the stronger angles, while less resistance is provided at the weaker angles. ▪ Disadvantage: There are few truly isokinetic weight-training machines in fitness centers that provide both speed and constant resistance.


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