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Building Muscular Strength and Endurance

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1 Building Muscular Strength and Endurance
Chapter 4

2 Muscular Strength and Endurance
Resistance training may be the only type of exercise capable of slowing and maybe reversing loss of muscle mass, bone density, and strength The “Use it or lose it” axiom applies to the 600-plus muscles in the body Declining stimulation of the muscles results in progressive shrinking and weakening of the muscles Most aerobic activities provide little stimulation of the upper body muscles Disuse atrophy- explains the loss of muscle mass and strength because of a sedentary lifestyle that is personified by low-level muscle stimulation well below the threshold for developing and maintaining muscle mass Heavy resistance training and circuit weight training have the potential to produce a high enough volume of work to improve cardiorespiratory endurance by as much as 5-10 percent

3 Health Benefits of Resistance Training
Strength training increases muscle mass and decreases the amount of fat tissue Increased muscle mass means your body burns more calories – even at rest The functions of daily life can be performed with less effort Symptoms of arthritis are reduced Stronger legs improve balance and reduce the risk of falling

4 Health Benefits of Resistance Training (2)
Risk of osteoporosis is reduced People can live independently and with dignity longer At least 50% of the disability associated with aging is due to disuse Reaction time is improved and people may sleep more restfully Some additional health benefits of strength training are: increases basal metabolic rate contributes to more restful sleep improves body image, self-esteem, and self-confidence improves the effectiveness of the body’s use of insulin aids in weight loss and weight management increases HDL cholesterol

5 Anaerobic Exercise Anaerobic means “without oxygen”
In anaerobic exercises the body demands more oxygen than can be supplied Anaerobic exercises are high intensity Anaerobic exercises can be sustained for only a few seconds

6 Muscular Strength the maximum force a muscle or muscle group can exert with one contraction
Muscular strength is best developed by high-intensity exercise—lifting more weight fewer times To increase strength, select a weight of 80% to 90% of your one-repetition maximum that cannot be lifted more than 10 times Muscular strength is developed best through progressive resistance exercise. Free weights or machine weights work very well. Machine weights are best for beginners. A repetition (rep) is one complete lift of an exercise. For example, 10 complete lifts equals 10 reps. In this case 10 reps equals 1 set. Conventional weight training employs 3 sets of each exercise. One repetition maximum (1RM) is the heaviest load that can be lifted a single time.

7 Static Training—Isometrics
Isometric contractions occur when muscles produce tension but do not change in length Pushing against a door or other immovable object is an isometric contraction Isometrics increase exercise arterial blood pressure Strength development is joint-angle specific Isometric contractions should be held for 6-10 seconds at maximum force. In isometric training, maximal contractions produce better results than submaximal contractions.

8 Dynamic Exercise—Isotonic Training
Isotonic contractions occur when muscles shorten and move the bones to which they are attached Isotonic movements consist of concentric and eccentric contractions Delayed muscle soreness (24 to 48 hours after exercise) from isotonic exercise is caused by microscopic tissue damage Stretching, light exercise, or rest can alleviate soreness Concentric contraction- occurs when a muscle shortens as it develops the tension to overcome an external resistance. Example-dumbell curl in the flexion phase Eccentric contraction- when the muscle lengthens and the weight is slowly returned to a starting position. Example- dumbell curl in the extension phase

9 Dynamic Exercise—Variable Resistance Training
Isotonic exercises do not maximally stress muscles throughout their full range of motion Variable resistance equipment is designed to provide maximum resistance throughout the full range of motion Universal Gym and Nautilus equipment vary the resistance, although the actual resistance is imprecise This type of equipment was developed because isotonic exercises do not maximally stress muscles throughout their full range of motion.

10 Dynamic Exercise Free-Weight Training
Free-weight training uses dumbbells and barbells to increase strength Free weights allow flexible movements, and the equipment is versatile Maximum resistance throughout the full range of motion does not occur, and spotters are needed for some exercises Freeweights are inexpensive and space effiecient


12 Dynamic Exercise Isokinetic Training
Isokinetic training uses equipment that adjusts resistance to accommodate the force applied by the exerciser Isokinetic exercises use preselected speeds that remain constant Maximum resistance is met throughout the full range of motion This type of training is quite often used in rehabilitation settings.

13 Dynamic Exercise Circuit Resistance Training
CRT develops several fitness dimensions simultaneously A circuit usually consists of 8 to 15 exercise stations Circuits are repeated 2-3 times for a 30- to 50-minute workout Exercisers work at 40% to 55% of maximum ability, performing as many repetitions as possible at each station Optimal gains are difficult to achieve

14 Muscular Endurance Muscular endurance is the repeated application of muscular force against a submaximal resistance Usually done over an extended period (15-45 sec. for 8-20 repetitions) If exercises are performed to maximum fatigue they may also build strength

15 Principles of Resistance Training
A minimum of eight to ten exercises involving the major muscle groups should be performed two to three days per week. A minimum of 1 set of 8 to 12 RM or to near fatigue should be completed by most participants; however, for older and more frail persons, 10 to 15 repetitions may be more appropriate. American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)

16 Principles of Resistance Training
Intensity Duration Frequency Overload Progression Specificity Variety Intensity should be 70% - 80% of 1 RM. Duration (Time)- meeting ACSM guidelines takes about 20 minutes. Frequency- resistance training exercises should be used no more than 3 days per week for beginners. Overload- muscles are subjected periodically to greater resistance as they adapt to the previous resistance. Progression- dictates how much and when and increase in resistance, reps, or sets should occur. Specificity- type of training dictates the type of muscle development.

17 Ergogenic Aids Ergogenic aids are substances, techniques, and treatments that theoretically improve physical performance in addition to the effects of normal training Some of the more well-known aids include: Protein supplements Creatine Ginseng Anabolic-androgenic steroids Protein supplements- suggested amount for those in weight training is g/kg of body weight ( normal protein requirement is 0.8 g/kg) Creatine- evidence indicates that supplementation is safe in the short-term, but long-term data are lacking. Chromium picolinate- no evidence to support the use of this drug Steriods- hormones that build muscle tissue, 80% - 90% of all steroids are purchased through the black market

18 Building Muscular Strength and Endurance
Chapter 4

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