Presentation on theme: "Do you know me? My name is Jin. My name is Jean. My name is Gene. My name is Jeanne. Presented by: David Hunt, J.D. President & CEO (612) 746-1375 Improving."— Presentation transcript:
Do you know me? My name is Jin. My name is Jean. My name is Gene. My name is Jeanne. Presented by: David Hunt, J.D. President & CEO (612) 746-1375 Improving Patient Satisfaction: From Microinequities to Microaffirmations
Agenda Three Demographic Megatrends The Science of Bias and Attitudes Towards Difference Understanding Microinequities The Implicit Association Test – Pro and Con Other Social Science Evidence for Implicit Bias Can Unconscious Bias Be Controlled? The Role of Microaffirmations
Three Demographic Megatrends Race and Ethnicity Immigration Numbers and Patterns Immigrants Bring New Cultural Influences –Religion –Language
Two Competing Bias Theories 1.Freudian Psychology - the human mind defends itself against the discomfort of guilt by denying or refusing to recognize those ideas, wishes and beliefs that conflict with what the individual has learned is good or right. 2.Cognitive Psychology – culture (including the media and an individuals peers, and authority figures) transmits certain beliefs and preferences. Because these beliefs are so much a part of the culture, they are not experienced as explicit lessons. Instead, they seem part of the individuals rational ordering of the world.
Awareness: New Research re: Bias 1.In the past, bias was regarded as aberrant, conscious and intentional. 2.Today, we understand that bias is normative, unconscious and largely unintentional. 3.Social Cognition Theory establishes that mental categories and personal experiences become hard- wired into cognitive functioning. 4. As a result, human biases can be seen as evolutionarily adaptive behaviors.
Human Biases are Evolutionarily Adaptive Behaviors 1.We go out in the world every day and make decisions about what is safe or not. 2.Much of this decision-making is automatic and unconscious. Our brains determine whether or not something or someone is safe before we can even begin to consciously make a determination. 3.When the object, animal, or person is assessed to be dangerous, a fight or flight response occurs in our Amygdala – a part of the brain that processes alarm. 4.Scientists estimate that we are exposed to as many as 11 million pieces of information at any one time, but our brains can only functionally deal with about 40. So how do we filter out the rest? 5.Answer: we use categories as a form of intellectual short-hand.
Race and the Brain
Brain Scans Show Activation of the Amygdala Brain scans using magnetic resonance imaging techniques has found that white subjects respond with a greater activation of the amygdala – a region that processes alarm – when shown images of black faces than when shown images of white faces. (One of the amygdalas critical functions is fear-conditioning…) Later studies have shown similar results when black subjects look at white faces. Source: Race and the Brain, Time, October 20, 2008, at p. 59.
What Activates Our Biases? Our biases are most likely to be activated by four key conditions. They are: stress time constraints multi-tasking need for closure
Attitudes Towards Differences Impact Our Behaviors Towards Others We tend to behave differently towards in-groups than out-groups. Behaviors towards in-groups include… Behaviors towards out-groups include…. When we deal with people from other cultures we tend not only to be more judgmental but to make moral judgments…
Antecedent Conditions that Encourage Stereotypes Psychologists have identified antecedent conditions that encourage stereotyping. Stereotyping is likely to occur when the target has solo or near-solo status (i.e., the only person of color among all white colleagues or the only woman among all male colleagues) among an otherwise homogeneous group. Specifically, in the employment context, stereotyping is likely to occur when a member of a previously omitted group (or protected class) assumes a job considered nontraditional for his group. Another condition shown to enable stereotyping in the employment context is the perceived lack of fit between the targets category (i.e., female, of color, etc.) and occupation. Finally, stereotyping is likely to occur when the criteria used for evaluation of a target are ambiguous, as is the case with subjective evaluations.
What are Microinequities? M. Rowe 1.Microinequities are subtle acts of discrimination which are often covert, unintentional and hard to prove. 2.They are frequently unrecognized by the perpetrator but have a significant impact on the recipient. 3.Microinequities occur wherever people are perceived to be "different. 4.Microinequities work both by excluding the person of difference and by making that person less self-confident and less productive. 5.Microinequities discourage creativity and risk-taking.
Why Are Microinequities Harmful? 1.Because the victim cant foresee them, stop them or prevent them from recurring. 2.Because they are a form of punishment for being different (inequities) and occur in the context of work without regard to performance or merit. 3.Because they undermine the effectiveness of the recipient. 4.Because they lead to the Pygmalian effect (expectations predict results). 5.Because they take up workplace time and energy and undermine interpersonal trust and relationships.
Workplace Incivility – DRIs Studies have found that over 71 percent of the workforce has experienced some form of workplace incivility in the last five years. Incivility is evidenced by disrespectful behavior. Source: Don Zander, Brookings Institution, 2002 Of the reported incidents of workplace-related DRIs: 32% were related to gender; 28% were related to race; 20% were related to age; 14% were related to sexual orientation and 6% were related to religion.
Workplace Incivility – DRIs Fiscal Impact of Workplace Incivility : Of those who experienced work-place related DRIs: 28% lost work time avoiding the instigator of the incivility; 53% lost time worrying about the incident/future interactions; 37% believe their commitment at work declined; 22% have decreased their effort at work; 10% decreased the amount of time that they spent at work; 12% actually changed jobs to avoid the instigator. Source: The Sparticus Group: 2003.
Picker – Inpatient Satisfaction with Doctors By Race, CLIENT 2003-2005 Question/StatementWhiteOf Color Signif? Didnt always have confidence/trust14.5%26.1% Yes in my doctors. Doctors talked as if I wasnt there. 6.3%23.2% Yes Courtesy of doctors fair or poor 2.5% 5.5% Yes Doctors/nurses gave conflicting info.21.5%26.5% Yes * Scores over 20% are considered problems by Picker.
Picker – Inpatient Satisfaction with Nurses By Race, CLIENT 2003-2005 Question/StatementWhiteOf Color Signif? Didnt always have confidence/trust24.8%34.7% Yes in my nurses. Nurses talked as if I wasnt there. 6.5%22.9% Yes Courtesy of nurses fair or poor 3.5% 5.6% Yes Nurses answers to questions.25.8%29.6% Yes werent always understood. * Scores over 20% are considered problems by Picker.
Picker – Treated with Courtesy, By Race, CLIENT 2003-2005 Question/StatementWhiteOf Color Signif? Courtesy of admissions staff rated 2.0% 5.9% Yes fair or poor. Courtesy of people who took blood 2.8% 8.8% Yes samples rated fair or poor Courtesy of people who brought food 5.0% 8.8% Yes rated fair or poor. Courtesy of people bringing to and from 1.2% 6.2% Yes room rated fair or poor. Courtesy of people taking x-rays rated 1.4% 7.6% Yes fair or poor. Courtesy of people who cleaned room 3.3% 8.6% Yes rated fair or poor
Picker – Other Key Indicators of Care By Race, CLIENT 2003-2005 Question/StatementWhiteOf Color Signif? Not always treated with respect and13.1%21.6% Yes dignity. Didnt always get help in time going 20.4%30.8% Yes to the bathroom. After using call button, had to wait > 15 2.1% 4.3% Yes minutes for help. Staff definitely did not do everything19.7% 26.3% Yes they could to control pain. Didnt have enough say about pain26.1% 38.4% Yes control during delivery. Probably would or would not 23.9% 28.8% Yes recommend to family/friends.
The Implicit Association Test
What is Project Implicit? Yale University, 1998 Now at Harvard, Virginia & Washington Universities 2003 – took off with research grant from National Institute of Mental Health 4.5 million tests since 1998 Now averaging 15,000 per week
Key IAT Findings - Age Age : Around ninety percent of Americans mentally associate negative concepts with the social group "elderly"; only about ten percent show the opposite effect associating elderly with positive concepts. Older people do not, show an automatic preference for their own group. Remarkably, the preference for young is just as strong in those in the over-60 age group as it is among 20- year-olds.
Key IAT Findings - Gender Gender : Seventy-five percent of men and women do not associate female with career as easily as they associate female with family. (Women show an implicit attitudinal preference for females over males, but they nonetheless show an implicit stereotype linking females closer to family than career.)
Key IAT Findings - Race Race : White participants consistently show a preference for White over Black on the IAT – a substantial majority of White IAT respondents (75% to 80%) show an automatic preference for White over Black. Data collected from this website consistently reveal approximately even numbers of Black respondents showing a pro-White bias as show a pro-Black bias. Other key race findings: younger people are just as likely to display an implicit race bias as older adults, women are as likely to display an implicit race bias as men and educational attainment appears to make no difference with respect to implicit race bias.
Summary: Key IAT Trends 1.Implicit biases are pervasive. 2.People are often unaware of their implicit biases. 3.Implicit biases predict behavior. 4.People differ in levels of implicit bias. 5.Educational attainment makes no difference with respect to implicit biases.
Other Social Science Research Regarding Implicit Bias
The Effect of Race and Sex on Physicians' Recommendations for Cardiac Catheterization 720 physicians viewed recorded interviews Reviewed data about a hypothetical patient The physicians then made recommendations about that patient's care Source: Schulman et.al. NEJM 1999;340:618.
IAT Finds Unconscious Bias in M.D. Decision-making Emergency room doctors in the study were told two men, one white and one African-American, were each 50 years old and complained of chest pain. The patients were not actually real people, but rather computer-generated images seen by the doctors only on a monitor. After the doctors in the study evaluated the two simulated patients, they were then given an implicit association test examining unconscious racial biases. The result was most of the doctors were more likely to prescribe a potentially life-saving, clot-busting treatment for the white patients than for the African- American patient. The study, by the Disparities Solutions Center, affiliated with Harvard University and Masschusetts General Hospital, is the first to deal with unconscious racial bias and how it can lead to inferior care for African- American patients. It was published in the online edition of the Journal of General Internal Medicine in June, 2007.
Are Emily & Greg More Employable than Lakisha & Jamal? Study of actual racial hiring bias in Chicago and Boston –Resumes sent to actual want ads 4 resumes per position – 2 high quality and 2 low quality African American sounding names assigned to one high quality and one low quality – Primary measurement was the callback rate – Results: people with "white-sounding" names are 50 percent more likely to get a response to their resume than are those with "black- sounding" names. Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination, 94 Am. Econ. Rev. 991 (2004).
The Big Five Orchestras Chicago and Boston –None of the Big Five employed more than 12% women until the 1980s – Blind auditions Improved the chances that a woman would ultimately be hired Female musicians in the Big Five increased five-fold from 1970 to 2000 Orchestrating Impartiality: the Impact of Blind Auditions on Female Musicians, 94 Am. Econ. Rev. 715 (2000).
Racial Discrimination Among NBA Referees Price, Joseph and Wolfers, Justin, "Racial Discrimination Among NBA Referees," NBER Working Paper Series, Vol. w13206 (2007). Available at http://www.nber.org/papers/w13206.pdf
Racial Discrimination Among NBA Referees Unique dataset - over a quarter million player-game observations From 1991-92 - 2003-04 seasons Each season - about 60 NBA referees - ref in 3 person crews - each ref works 70-75 games per season Richness of data allowed for control of a plethora of non-race related relevant factors in foul calling Black/White players receive fewer fouls when more of the referees present in the game are of the same race Bias in foul calling large enough -probability of team winning affected by racial composition of refereeing crew
Does Unconscious Racial Bias Affect Trial Judges? Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Sheri Lynn Johnson, Andrew J. Wistrich & Chris Guthrie, Does Unconscious Racial Bias Affect Trial Judges?, 84 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1195 (2009) This article reports the results of the first study of implicit racial bias among judges
Study Results The results of this study are both alarming and heartening: 1. Judges hold implicit biases. * Strong white preference among White judges. * No real preference among Black judges * Black judges comparable IAT scores as Blacks on the internet * White judges statistically stronger White preference than Whites on the internet 2.These biases can influence their judgment
IAT and Judicial Behavior In both shoplifter and robbery cases, judges with White preference on IAT somewhat more likely to impose harsher sentences when primed with Black-associated words than White associated or neutral words Judges who expressed a Black preference on IAT reacted in opposite fashion. 3.Judges can, at least in some instances, compensate for their implicit biases.
Can Implicit Bias Be Controlled?
1.Researchers long believed that because implicit associations develop early in our lives, and because we are often unaware of their influence, they may be virtually impervious to change. 2.But recent work suggests that we can reshape our implicit attitudes and beliefs or at least curb their effects on our behavior. 3.In particular, there are several strategies that appear to make a difference: A. Information – re: the psychological basis of bias B. Motivation - internal (vs. external) motivation to change C. Individuation – learning to see diverse others as individuals rather than as members of groups. D. Direct contact with members of other groups. E. Working together on teams, as equals, in pursuit of common goals. F. Context/environment – images of leaders from diverse groups helps 4.In sum, one can either think ones way into a new way of behaving or behave ones way into a new way of thinking. Why? Humans do not like cognitive dissonance.
Using the IAT With Teachers 1.Two professors at Ball State University recently produced a white paper describing attempts to reduce teachers implicit biases by having them take the IAT and then proceeding with varying types of interventions depending upon their reactions to their scores. See: Using the IAT With Teachers to Affect Change, Dr. Eva Zygmunt-Fillwalk and Dr. Patricia Clark, Ball State University. 2.Over a four-year period, the researchers had over 500 practicing teachers take the Race IAT in order to begin a dialogue on issues of race, power, privilege, and education for social justice. 3.Teachers responses tended to fall into one of five categories: A.Disregard for the results B.Disbelief in the results C.Acceptance of the results D.Discomfort with the results E.Disclosure
Reducing Bias In Physicians 1.Racial and ethnic disparities in the quality of medical outcomes are widely documented. A.Institute of Medicine report Unequal Treatment (2002) B.Research indicates that little progress has been made since 2002. 2.Michelle van Ryn of the University of Minnesota and colleagues recently published some evidence-based recommendations for combating bias among health care providers. See: Burgess, D., van Ryn, M., et. al. Reducing Racial Bias Among Health Care Providers: Lessons from Social-Cognitive Psychology, 22 Journal of General Internal Medicine 882-887 (2007). 3.Their conceptual model (depicted on the next slide), recognizes the importance of motivation, information and skills as key ingredients for successful interventions. 4.The next slide discusses the approach advocated by van Ryn.
Can Implicit Bias Be Controlled?
Battling Bias – New Tools
Battling Bias – Individual Actions 1.Enhance understanding of the psychological basis of bias. 2.Replace negative mental images of the target group with positive mental images. 3.Increase positive contacts with socially dissimilar groups. 4.Increase affective empathy and perspective taking toward outgroups. 5.Work with target group members to achieve common tasks/goals. 6.Replace tolerance behaviors with acceptance and appreciation behaviors. (Shift from micro-inequities to micro-affirmations.) 7. Analyze personal patterns of privilege and privation in light of the Set Up to Fail Syndrome. (Who do you micro-manage?) 8.Get 360-degree diversity feedback from diverse members of your work-team.
DISCUSSION ENGAGEMENT DYNAMICACCOMMODATION INDIRECT DIRECT EMOTIONAL RESTRAINTEMOTIONAL EXPRESSIVENESS INTERCULTURAL CONFLICT STYLE MODEL 1 2 34
What are Micro-affirmations? 1.Micro-affirmations are tiny acts of opening doors to opportunity, gestures of inclusion and caring, and graceful acts of listening which occur wherever people wish to help others to succeed. 2.Micro-affirmations lie in the practice of generosity, in consistently giving credit to othersin providing comfort and support when others are in distress. 3.Micro-affirmations include the myriad details of fair, specific, timely, consistent and clear feedback that help a person build on strength and correct weakness.
How Do Micro-affirmations Help? 1.Affirming people and their work helps them do well. 2.Consistent, appropriate affirmation of others can spread from one person to anotherpotentially raising morale and productivity. It helps everyone. 3.Micro-affirmations are particularly helpful for department heads, and anyone who is senior to another person, to model affirming behavior. 4.It may be hard for a person to catch himself or herself unconsciously behaving inequitably. But if I try to affirm others in an appropriate and consistent way, I have a good chance of blocking behavior of mine that I want to prevent.
Battling Bias – Organizational Actions 1.Conduct a Diversity Workforce Assessment. 2.Collect patient race, ethnicity and language data and connect it to patient outcomes. Less than 20% of U.S. hospitals do both. 3.Collect patient satisfaction data and stratify it by race, language and other key variables such as national origin. 4.Collect patient complaint data and stratify it by race, national origin, language etc. 5.Stratify critical incident data by each of the variables above. 6.Look for patterns in these data sets. 7. Provide personalized feedback. 8.Key: these data sets are like the smoke detectors in our homes. Youll never hear the alarms if the smoke detectors are turned off…