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© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations 14-1 Chapter 14 Ethical Leadership and Diversity
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-2 Learning Objectives Understand the difficulties in defining and assessing ethical leadership Understand the major conceptions of ethical leadership and how they relate to current leadership theories Understand how gender issues have been studied and the limitations of this research Understand the findings in research on gender differences in leadership
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-3 Learning Objectives Understand how leadership processes can be affected by national culture Understand the difficulties of studying cross- cultural leadership and the limitations of research on this subject Understand why it is important to manage diversity and provide equal opportunity to all members of an organization
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-4 Ethical Leadership General Conceptions of Ethical Leadership Diverse Perspectives on Ethical Leadership Burns Heifetz Greenleaf
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-5 Ethical Leadership Personal Integrity and Ethical Leadership Dilemmas in Evaluating Ethical Leadership Influencing Expectations Influencing Values and Beliefs Multiple Stakeholders
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-6
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-7 Promoting an Ethical Climate Set an example of ethical behavior in your own actions Facilitate the development and dissemination of a code of ethical conduct Initiate discussions with followers or colleagues about ethics and integrity
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-8 Promoting an Ethical Climate Recognize and reward ethical behavior by others Take personal risks to advocate moral solutions to problems Help others find fair and ethical solutions to conflicts Initiate support services (e.g., ethics hotline, online advisory group)
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-9 Opposing Unethical Practices Refuse to share in the benefits provided by unethical activities Refuse to accept assignments that involve unethical activities Try to discourage unethical actions by others Speak out publicly against unethical or unfair policies in the organization
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-10 Opposing Unethical Practices Oppose unethical decisions and seek to get them reversed Inform proper authorities about dangerous products or harmful practices Provide assistance to others who oppose unethical decisions or practices
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-11 Ethical Leadership Determinants of Ethical Leadership Future Research on Ethical Leadership
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-12 Gender and Leadership Sex-Based Discrimination Implicit Theories Stereotypes and Role Expectations Feminine Advantage
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-13 Gender and Leadership Sex-Based Discrimination Other Explanations A lack of opportunity to gain experience and visibility in types of positions that would facilitate advancement Higher standards of performance for women than for men Exclusion of women from informal networks that aid advancement Lack of encouragement and opportunity for developmental activities
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-14 Gender and Leadership Sex-Based Discrimination Other Explanations Lack of opportunity for effective mentoring Difficulties created by competing family demands A lack of strong action by top management to ensure equal opportunity Intentional efforts by some men to retain control of the most powerful positions for themselves
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-15 Leadership in Different Cultures Importance of Cross-Cultural Research Cultural Influences on Leadership Behavior Types of Research and Difficulties Cross Cultural Differences in Leadership The Globe Project
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-16 Types of Research and Difficulties Cross-Cultural Research Questions Differences in the conceptualization of leadership behavior, as defined by factor structures or leadership prototypes Differences in beliefs about effective leadership behavior Differences in the actual pattern of leadership behavior in each country Differences in the relationship of leadership behavior to outcomes such as subordinate satisfaction, motivation, and performance
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-17 Types of Research and Difficulties Methodological Problems Lack of equivalence of meaning for measures developed in one country and then used in other countries Confounding effects of demographic and situational variables that are not controlled by sampling or by covariance analysis Response biases that differ across cultures Statistically significant differences that are too weak to have any practical significance Lack of representative samples from which to generalize about countries with large regional differences.
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-18
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-19 Guidelines for Managing Diversity Set an example in your own behavior of appreciation for diversity Encourage respect for individual differences Promote understanding of different values, beliefs, and traditions Explain the benefits of diversity for the team or organization Encourage and support others who promote tolerance of diversity
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations14-20 Guidelines for Managing Diversity Discourage use of stereotypes to describe people Identify biased beliefs and role expectations for women or minorities Challenge people who make prejudiced comments Speak out to protest against unfair treatment based on prejudice Take disciplinary action to stop harassment of women or minorities
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