2Workshop plan Lessons learnt from Unit 3 Review of Research Methods Unit 4 TimelineKey ResourcesAoS 2: Walk through the contentAssessment optionsUnit 4 exam advice VCAA
3Lessons Learnt from Unit 3 Course is very long – pace yourselfPlenty of exam practice needed throughout the unitDo more section C questionsAll content is new to your studentsExam weighted towards new content?The days, weeks, months go very quickly!!!
4Research MethodsResearch methods and ethics listed in Unit 3 are also assessed in Unit 4 plusUnderlined content is new to 2011 study designColoured content was assessed inVCAA Psychology Exam
5experimental research: construction of research hypotheses; identification of operational independent and dependent variables; identification of extraneous and potential confounding variables including individual participant differences, order effects, experimenter effect, placebo effects; ways of minimising confounding and extraneous variables including type of experiment, counterbalancing, single and double blind procedures, placebos; evaluation of different types of experimental research designs including independent-groups, matched-participants, repeated-measures; reporting conventions
6sampling procedures in selection and allocation of participants: random sampling; stratified sampling; random-stratified sampling; random allocation of participants to groups; control and experimental groupstechniques of qualitative and quantitative data collection: case studies; observational studies; selfreports; questionnaires; interviews; brain imaging and recording technologies
7statistics: measures of central tendency including mean, median and mode; interpretation of p-values and conclusions; reliability including internal consistency; validity including construct and external; evaluation of research in terms of generalising the findings to the populationethical principles and professional conduct: the role of the experimenter; protection and security of participants’ rights; confidentiality; voluntary participation; withdrawal rights; informed consent procedures; use of deception in research; debriefing; use of animals in research; role of ethics committees.
8Research Methods – Unit 4 experimental research: identification and operationalisation of independent and dependent variables; identification of extraneous and potential confounding variables including artificiality, demand characteristics, and non-standardised instructions and procedures; ways of minimising confounding and extraneous variables including type of sampling procedures, and standardised instructions and proceduressampling procedures in selection and allocation of participants: convenience samplingethical principles and professional conduct: advantages and limitations of the use of non-human animals in research in terms of generalisation and conclusions.
9Unit 4 structure and timeline AoS 1 AoS Res Meth Key skillsLO 1 LO 2KK KK KK5dps 6dps dps dpsin the KK and assessmentsIntegrated7 weeks7 weeks
13Area of Study 2: MENTAL HEALTH UNIT 4Area of Study 2: MENTAL HEALTH
14AoS 2: Mental Health What does mental health mean? How can ‘normality’ be defined?Is feeling stressed ‘normal’?What is the relationship between mental health and illness?How can mental wellbeing be enhanced?
15AoS 2: Mental HealthLearning Outcome 2: On completion of this unit the student should be able to differentiate between mental health and mental illness, and use a biopsychosocial framework to explain the causes and management of stress, simple phobia and a selected mental disorder
26DP1: concepts of normality and differentiation of mental health from mental illness Socio-cultural Functional Historical Situational Medical StatisticalKey issues:Spectrum of normality – who’s perspective?Identifying the similarities and differences between mental health and illnessIntroduces the concept of mental illness to the classroom.
28DP1: concepts of normality and differentiation of mental health from mental illness LA:What is normal? Get students to draw a “scientist”, “doctor”, “builder”, “teacher” and teenager – compare drawings for similar/different characteristics. How do we come up with our concept of normal? Could use cardboard cutout human figures for students to decorate as “normal” teenagers. Compare and discuss.
29Health – is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and NOT the absence of disease or illness. (WHO) Illness – refers to a person’s subjective experience of feeling unwell in relation to one or more aspects of their health. This means that illness involves how an individual thinks and feels about their their physical, mental and/or social wellbeing.
30Mental Health – is the capacity of an individual to interact with others and the environment in ways that promote subjective wellbeing, optimal development throughout the lifespan, and effective use of the person’s cognitive, emotional and social abilities. Mental Illness – describes a psychological dysfunction that usually involves impairment in the ability to cope with everyday life, distress, and thoughts, feelings and/or behaviour that are atypical of the person and may also be inappropriate within their culture. In psychology and psychiatry “illness” is used to describe a mental disorder so these terms are interchangeable. The DSM uses “disorder” rather than “illness.” Video: David Rosenhan “Thud” experiment Nelson SWB – 7.4 follow up acitivity. VCAA Unit 4 sample questions Distinguish between the meaning of the terms mental health and mental illness. (2 marks)
31DP2: systems of classification of mental conditions and disorders: underlying principles of classification; strengths and limitations of discrete categorical (DSM- IV and ICD-10) and dimensional (graded and transitional) approaches to classification of mental disorders
32Categorical Approach – organises and describes mental conditions and disorders in terms of different categories and subcategories, each with symptoms and characteristics that are typical of specific mental conditions and disorders.This means that there are clear boundaries around each disorder and that disorders do not overlap. (e.g OCD different to antiscoial personality disorderDiagnosis of a mental disorder using DSM consists of identifying the disorder that best matches or reflects the symptoms presented by an individual.DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10
33Strengths and Limitations Based on scientific research and are constantly being updatedDiagnosis enables a treatment planEnhances communication among mentsal health professionalsWeaknessesLow inter-rater reliability but improving (validity and reliability)
34Dimensional Approach – quantifies a person’s symptoms or other characteristics of interest and represents them with numerical values on one or more scales or continuums, rather than assigning them to a mental disorder category.This is done using standardised inventories or questionnairesAn inventory or “test” typically comprises closed- ended questions requiring yes, no or a rating on a Likert scale – this enables quantitative scoring and assessment based on score.Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised(EPQ-R)
35DP3: use of a biopsychosocial framework (the interaction and integration of biological, psychological and social factors) as an approach to considering physical and mental health
36Biopsychosocial Framework Is an approach to describing how biological, psychological and social factors combine and interact to influence a person’s physical and mental healthRef: StudyOn
37Biopsychosocial Framework BIOLOGICAL FACTORS – involve physiologically based or determined influences, often not under our control, such as inherited genes and neurochemistryPSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS – involve all those influences associated with mental processes – thinking, learning, making decisions, manage stress etcSOCIAL FACTORS – include the skills of interacting with others, interpersonal relationships, support available, cultural values, exposure to stress, educational and employment history, income level.
38DP4: • application of a biopsychosocial framework to understanding the relationship between stress and physical and mental wellbeing:Key issues:The following ‘dash points’ are interpreted in light of this ‘dot point’ stem
39DP4: – physiological and psychological characteristics of responses to stress including fight-flight response, eustress and distress; strengths and limitations of Selye’s General Adaptation SyndromeKey issues:Underlined is new to current study design
40Eustress and DistressEUSTRESS is a positive psychological response to a stressor (e.g. enthusiastic, excited, active and alert DISTRESS is a negative psychological response to a stressor (e.g. anger, anxiety, nervousness, irritability or tension. Whether a situation or event results in eustress or distress varies depending upon the cognitive interpretation e.g. Bungee Jumping, Scary Movie
41Strengths and Limitations of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome Developed awareness of the link between stress and disease – stress can initiate and progress many diseases (e.g cancer)LIMITATIONSHas a one-size fits all philosophy – everyone has the same reactions to the same stressors.GAS does not take into account individual differences
42DP4: – psychological determinants of the stress response; strengths and limitations of Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman’s Transactional Model of Stress and CopingKey issues:How does Lazarus and Folkman compare to GAS?
43Psychological responses to stress BEHAVIOURAL CHANGESAre apparent in how a person looks, acts, talks etc. (e.g. small changes like strained facial expressions, hand tremors or ‘jumpiness” or large changes like sleep disturbances, eating changes, aggresssive behaviour.EMOTIONAL CHANGESInfluence the way a person feels (e.g. anxiousness, depressed, angry and helpless and accompanied with a negative attitude to all aspects of life)COGNITIVE CHANGESInfluence a person’s mental abilities (e.g. perceptions of their circumstances and environment, their ability to learn and how they think are exaggerated. Difficulty with concentration, making decisions and is related to CATASTROPHISING – over emphasising the impact of negative events
44Psychological determinants of the stress response - Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional Model of Stress and Coping Is assesed by the meaning of the event to the individual and their judgment of their ability to cope. Coping is an attempt to manage the stressor – problem-focused and emotion-focused (when we have less control over the situation)
45STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS Strengths and Limitations of Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional Model of Stress and CopingSTRENGTHSUnlike GAS it focuses on the psychological determinants of stress rather than the physiological and emphasises the personal nature of the response.LIMITATIONSDifficult to test through experimental research due to subjective nature, variability and complexity of responses.
46DP4: – social, cultural and environmental factors that exacerbate and alleviate the stress response
47social, cultural and environmental factors Reference: StudyON
48DP4: – allostasis (stability through change brought about by the brain’s regulation of the body’s response to stress) as a model that integrates biological, psychological and social factors that explain an individual’s response to stressKey issues:A new word for homeostasis
49DP4: – strategies for coping with stress including biofeedback, meditation/relaxation, physical exercise, social supportKey issues:Understanding how each of these techniques impacts and improves the negative stress reactionIs there a difference between meditation and relaxation?
50DP5: application of a biopsychosocial framework to understanding and managing simple phobia as an example of an anxiety disorder:Key issues:The ‘dash’ points now articulate what was previously taught but not specified
51ANXIETY is a state of physiological arousal associated with feelings of apprehension, worry or uneasiness that something is wrong or that something unpleasant is about to happenANXIETY DISORDER is used to describe a group of disorders that are characterised by chronic feelings of anxiety, distress, nervousness, fear of the future, with negative effect.PHOBIA is an excessive or unreasonable fear directed towards a particular object, situation or event that causes significant distress or interferes with everyday functioning.SPECIFIC PHOBIA is a disorder characterised by significant anxiety provoked by exposure to a specific feared object or situation, often leading to avoidance behaviour.
52DP5: - biological contributing factors: role of the stress response; role of the neurotransmitter gamma- amino butyric acid (GABA) in the management of phobic anxietyIn the presence of GABA the body can calm itself down - without it it remains in a stressed state. Drugs can imitate the effect of GABA.
53DP5: - psychological contributing factors: psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive models; the use of psychotherapies in treatment including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), systematic desensitisation and floodingLINK to AOS 1Refer back to graduated exposure and flooding in AOS 1
54PSYCHODYNAMIC MODEL is based on the assumption that all mental disorders are caused by unresolved psychological conflicts that occur in the unconscious part of the mind, beneath the level of ordinary conscious awareness. These conflicts have their origins in early childhood experiences. (e.g. Oedipal complex resolved via repression)BEHAVIOURAL MODEL says that phobias are learned through experience and may be acquired, maintained or modified by environmental consequences such as rewards and punishments.classical conditioning processes play a role in the acquisition of a specific phobia and operant conditioning processes play a role in the persistence (or maintenance) of specific phobia.COGNITIVE MODEL focuses on how the individual processes information about the phobic stimulus and related events. Cognitive models emphasise how and why people with a phobia have an unreasonable and excessive fear of a phobic stimulus.Includes attentional bias, memory bias, interpretive bias and catastrophic thinking
55DP5: - socio-cultural contributing factors: specific environmental triggers such as being bitten by a dog; parental modelling and transmission of threat informationLINK to AOS 1Observational learning (children see children do – Canadian tv commercial)
56DP5: - the interaction between biological, psychological and socio-cultural factors which contribute to an understanding of the disorder and its management
57Biopsychosocial Framework Is an approach to describing how biological, psychological and social factors combine and interact to influence a person’s physical and mental healthRef: StudyOn
58AssessmentThere are two pairs of assessment tasks. Pair A may be selected for either Outcome 1 or Outcome 2. Pair B must be utilised for the outcome not covered by Pair A.
59Pair A Annotated folio of practical activities 30 marks One other task selected from:• essay• testvisual presentation20 marks
60Pair B One task selected from: • evaluation of research • data analysis• essay• media response• report of a research investigation conducted by the student• oral presentation using two or more data types• test• visual presentation25 marks
61Unit 4 exam advice VCAAMental Disorder will not be examined in extended response – Section B 5-6 marks for this only.Criteria for extended response:The extended question in Section C will be marked according to the following criteria. In response to the speciﬁc question requirements, students will demonstrate an ability to:1. identify and describe the key terms/theories/issues2. explain the relevant terms/theories/issues and make connections between psychological concepts/theories and data and research3. use appropriate examples/evidence/data to support the response4. interpret and analyse the issues/data/information5. evaluate issues/data/information and draw appropriate conclusions.
62Multiple Choice Question 28 Graduated exposure refers to A. pairing a feared stimulus with a new, more negative response.B. the gradual use of anaesthetics to remove a fear response.C. gradually building up tolerance to threatening stimulus.D. an irrational fear of a speciﬁc object or situation.Called systematic sensitisation in MENTAL HEALTH
63Multiple Choice Question 38 The psychodynamic model proposes that simple phobia is due toA. unresolved physiological trauma.B. innate biological and genetic factors.C. unresolved conﬂicts that emerge during the phallic stage of development.D. anger towards a person’s mother or father that is transferred to an object, animal or situation.Both correct.
64Multiple ChoiceQuestion 39 Which group of the following brain structures is involved in initiating and processing the fear response?A. amygdala, hippocampus, thalamusB. amygdala, thalamus, adrenal glandC. hippocampus, adrenal gland, amygdalaD. amygdala, hippocampus, corpus callosumBrain structures reataing to fear response not in study design
65Multiple Choice Question 44 One night, Simon came home later than the time he had agreed with his parents. As punishment, Simon’s parents conﬁscated his mobile phone for a month. Because he was out of contact with his friends, Simon experienced considerable stress during this time. The factor responsible for this stress wasA. social.B. cultural.C. psychological.D. environmental.as it's his appraisal that not being in contact with his friends via his mobile phone is a 'catastrophe'
66Short AnswerQuestion 32a. On which axis would ‘Phobic disorder’ be classiﬁed according to DSM-IV-TR?1 markAxis 1b. Explain why it would be classiﬁed on this axis.is because Axis I is where clinical disorders are listedNo such thing as phobic disorder – specific phobia disorder
67Section C – sample unit 4 Question 1 Give an example of a simple phobia and explain the roles of classical conditioning and operant conditioning in the acquisition and maintenance of this phobia. In your response ensure that you use the appropriate terminology for classical and operant conditioning.
68Unit 4 exam advice VCAAMental Disorder will not be examined in extended response – Section B 5-6 marks for this only.Criteria for extended response:The extended question in Section C will be marked according to the following criteria. In response to the speciﬁc question requirements, students will demonstrate an ability to:1. identify and describe the key terms/theories/issues2. explain the relevant terms/theories/issues and make connections between psychological concepts/theories and data and research3. use appropriate examples/evidence/data to support the response4. interpret and analyse the issues/data/information5. evaluate issues/data/information and draw appropriate conclusions.
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