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Year 11 Psychology – UNIT 1 Area of Study 1 Revision!

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Presentation on theme: "Year 11 Psychology – UNIT 1 Area of Study 1 Revision!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Year 11 Psychology – UNIT 1 Area of Study 1 Revision!

2 Psychology: The scientific study of human behaviour and mental processes

3 Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology Scope of psychology including specialist career fields and fields of application and their contribution to understanding human behaviour Classic and contemporary theories that have contributed to the development of psychology from philosophical beginnings to an empirical science, including the relationship between psychology and psychiatry Differences between contemporary psychological research methods and non-scientific approaches to investigating and explaining human behaviour Major perspectives (biological, behavioural, cognitive and socio- cultural) that govern how psychologists approach their research into human behaviour

4 Chapter 2: Research Methods Research methods and ethics associated with the study of psychology. Experimental research: construction of hypotheses; identification of independent, dependent and extraneous variables Ethical principles and professional conduct: the role of the experimenter; protection and security of participants’ rights; confidentiality; voluntary participation; withdrawal rights; informed consent procedures; use of deception in research; debriefing

5 Chapter 3: Visual Perception Application of psychological perspectives to explain visual perception: - Characteristics of the visual perceptual system and the visual processes involved in detecting and interpreting visual stimuli. - The effect of psychological factors on perceptual set - Distortions of visual perceptions by illusions

6 Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology -Clinical Psychology -Clinical Neuro-Psychology -Community Psychology -Counselling Psychology -Educational and Developmental Psychology -Forensic Psychology -Health Psychology -Organisational Psychology -Sport Psychology -Biological Psychology -Cognitive Psychology -Personality Psychology -Social Psychology

7 Philosophical Roots of Psychology 1 St Philosophers: Plato, Aristotle and Socrates. Greek philosophers proposed the mind-body problem (E.g. Do they have a relationship with one another? How do they interact? Is the mind apart of the body or body apart of the mind? Etc) Rene Descartes introduced Dualism where he concluded the mind and body both can control and interact with one another. Before this, philosophers thought they could not control one another. Psychologists today focus more on the mind-brain problem. As we know the brain controls the body, therefore: does our brain interact with our mind? Neuropsychologists are still studying these answers

8 CLASSICAL PERSPECTIVES AND THEORIES IN PSYCHOLOGY Structuralism-Wundt: Focused on the ‘structure’ of consciousness (1 st Psych Lab – 1879) Functionalism- James: Focused on the ‘functions’ of mental processes in different environments. Psychoanalysis- Freud: Focus on the unconscious thoughts, feelings and inner needs. Behaviourism – Watson: Focus on observable behaviours. (i.e. Changing environment can alter behaviour) Humanism – Rogers: Focus on the uniqueness and goodness of each individual

9 CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES AND THEORIES IN PSYCHOLOGY Biological Perspective: Focus on physiological factors Behavioural Perspective: Focus on observable behaviour in different environments Cognitive Perspective: Focus on how we acquire and process information (i.e Memory) Socio-Cultural Perspective: Focus how culture and social factors influence behaviour.

10 Psychology versus Psychiatry -Is not able to prescribe medication -6 years university study -Can work in private practices, schools, research labs, government bodies, hospitals, businesses etc -Can prescribe medication -Up to 13 years of study and training -Usually work in a hospital setting

11 Psychology as a Science Collects empirical evidence Conducts experimental research follows steps of scientific research. Is NOT a pseudoscience such as telepathy or astrology.

12 Chapter 2: Research Methods -Hypothesis: It is hypothesised that all Year 11’s will do wonderfully on their psychology SAC’s tomorrow.

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14 7 Steps of Psychological Research 1.Identification of the research problem 2.Construction of hypothesis 3.Designing the method 4.Collecting the data 5.Analysing the data 6.Interpreting the data 7.Reporting the research findings

15 Ethical Considerations

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18 Chapter 3: Visual Perception

19 Visual Perception Process VISUAL SENSATION => LIGHT =>EYE => RETINA => PHOTORECEPTORS => RECEPTION =>TRANSDUCTION => NEURAL ACTIVITY => ELECTRICAL IMPLUSES =>OPTIC NERVE => BRAIN => VISUAL CORTEX =>TRANSMISSION VISUAL PERCEPTION => ORGANISATION => INTERPRETATION

20 Sensation versus Perception Visual sensation is the same for everyone It is our physiological make up of the eye and the way it functions Visual perception differs as everyone perceives and interprets things differently When studying Visual Perception it is difficult to say where one starts and the other begins so we see it as an interrelated process.

21 VISUAL PERCEPTION PRINCIPLES: Rules that we apply to visual information to assist our organisation and interpretation of the information in a consistent and meaningful way. Gestalt Principles: The way in which we organise features of a visual scene by grouping them to perceive a whole, complete form. Figure-Ground organisation Closure

22 - Similarity -Proximity

23 Depth Principles: The ability to accurately estimate the distance of objects and therefore perceive the world in three dimensions. -Binocular depth cues (Requiring the use of both eyes) -Convergence -Retinal Disparity. -Monocular depth cues (Requiring the use of one eye only) -Accommodation -Pictorial cues: Linear perspective, interposition, texture gradient, relative size, height in the visual field

24 Pictorial cues

25 Interposition!

26 Texture Gradient

27 Relative size

28 Height in the Visual Field

29 SIZE CONSTANCY

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31 SHAPE CONSTANCY

32 BRIGHTNESS CONSTANCY

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35 PERCEPTUAL SET CONTEXT MOTIVATION PAST EXPERIENCE EMOTIONAL STATE MOTIVATION


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