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Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 MASTERING THE WORLD OF PSYCHOLOGY 4e Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd 10
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Links to Learning Objectives SOURCES OF STRESS 10.1 How does the life events approach describe stress?How does the life events approach describe stress? 10.2 What do hassles, uplifts, and choices contribute to stress?What do hassles, uplifts, and choices contribute to stress? 10.3 What variables contribute to workers’ comfort zone?What variables contribute to workers’ comfort zone? 10.4 What are some social sources of stress?What are some social sources of stress? THE HEALTH-STRESS CONNECTION 10.5 How does the biopsychosocial model approach health and illness?How does the biopsychosocial model approach health and illness? 10.6 How does the fight-or-fight response affect health?How does the fight-or-fight response affect health? 10.7 How do theorists explain physiological and psychological responses to stress?How do theorists explain physiological and psychological responses to stress? 10.8 What factors promote resilience in the face of stress?What factors promote resilience in the face of stress?
Sources of Stress
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 The Life Events Approach Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): Assesses stress in terms of major life events, positive or negative, that necessitate change and adaptation Ranks 43 life events from most to least stressful and assigns a point value to each LO 10.1 How does the life events approach describe stress? STRESS
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 The Life Events Approach Catastrophic events: People respond differently. Some develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is often characterized by: –Flashbacks –Nightmares –Intrusive memories of the traumatic event
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Everyday Stressors Richard Lazarus: Hassles can cause more stress than major life changes do. Uplifts may neutralize the effects of many hassles. LO 10.2 What do hassles, uplifts, and choices contribute to stress?
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Everyday Stressors Choices are another source of stress in everyday life. Approach-Approach Conflicts GOAL #1GOAL #2 Approach-Avoidance Conflicts GOAL Avoidance-Avoidance Conflicts GOAL #1GOAL #2
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Stress in the Workplace Nine variables that should fall within a worker’s comfort zone: 1.Workload 2.Clarity of job description and evaluation criteria 3.Physical variables 4.Job status 5.Accountability 6.Task variety 7.Human contact 8.Physical challenge 9.Mental challenge LO 10.3 What variables contribute to workers’ comfort zone?
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 People of low socioeconomic status have more stress-related health problems than those of higher status. Some researchers propose: The higher incidence of high blood pressure among African Americans is attributable to stress associated with historical racism. Racism Socioeconomic Status Social Sources of Stress LO 10.4 What are some social sources of stress?
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Adjusting to life in a new culture can be extremely stressful. People who lose their jobs suffer more stress-related illnesses in the months following job loss than peers who are still employed. Unemployment Social Sources of Stress
The Health-Stress Connection
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Illness Biopsychosocial model: Health and illness are determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. Biomedical model: Explains illness solely in terms of biological factors. LO 10.5 How does the biopsychosocial model approach health and illness? social Biopsycho Biopsychosocial Model
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Illness Source: Green & Shellenberger (1990).
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 The Physiology of the Health-Stress Connection LO 10.6 How does the fight-or-fight response affect health? Stress causes the body to try to maintain the fight-or-flight response over a long period of time, which influences health in two ways: Biochemicals associated with the response can make the body more vulnerable to illness through their direct actions on tissues. The response influences health indirectly because it suppresses the immune system.
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 The General Adaptation Syndrome LO 10.7 How do theorists explain physiological and psychological responses to stress? Stage 1: Alarm Stage 2: Resistance Stage 3: Exhaustion
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Lazarus’s Cognitive Theory of Stress Source: Folkman (1984).
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Risk and Resilience: Coping Strategies Emotion-focused coping: A response involving reappraisal of a stressor to reduce its emotional impact Problem-focused coping: A direct response aimed at reducing, modifying, or eliminating a source of stress Proactive coping: Active measures taken in advance of a potentially stressful situation in order to prevent its occurrence or to minimize its consequences LO 10.8 What factors promote resilience in the face of stress?
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Risk and Resilience: Optimism Optimists: Tend to cope more effectively with stress, which may reduce their risk of illness
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Risk and Resilience: Hardiness Hardiness: Combination of three psychological qualities shared by people who can handle high levels of stress and remain healthy 1.Commitment 2.Control 3.Challenge
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Risk and Resilience: Religious and Social Involvement Religious involvement: Positively associated with measures of physical health
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Risk and Resilience: Social Support Tangible and/or emotional support provided in time of need by family members, friends, and others The feeling of being loved, valued, and cared for by those toward whom we feel a similar obligation Social Support
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Risk and Resilience: Perceived Control Perceived control: Belief that one has some degree of control over stressors
Stress and Health Chapter 11. Chapter 11 Learning Objective Menu LO 11.1 Stress LO 11.2 Cognitive factors in stress LO 11.3 Kinds of experiences causing.
Stress and Health Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc PsychSmart INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY.
Chapter 13 Stress, Coping and Health. Table of Contents Principle types of stress include a. conflict, fear, pressure b. anxiety, conflict, change c.
Lesson 4 Everyone goes through times of stress, disappointments, and difficulty. When hardships and tragedies happen, it can be hard for people to cope.
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Work-related to Stress and Stress Management Chapter 7 Thuan Lam Frederick Widjaja.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 8 Emotion and Motivation This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
Mental and Emotional Health Chapter 6. Health Goals for Mental and Emotional Health I will develop good character I will interact in ways that help create.
Community Health and Wellness Promotion CH06100 Session 1 Concepts, History, Determinates & more May 10, 2011 David Beavers, M.Ed., D.C., M.P.H. Session.
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1Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 54 Psychological Responses to Illness.
Perceptions of Health When we talk about health and what it means to individuals, it is important to consider how and why people form their varying views.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) AP Psychology Chapter 3: Stress and Health Psychology.
Review A. What is Behavioral Medicine? B. What is the name of the approach used in Behavioral Medicine that suggests a more comprehensive approach? C.
Chapter 10 Coping with Stress A Wellness Way of Life Ninth Edition Robbins/Powers/Burgess © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Chapter 13: Middle Adulthood (34 – 60 Years). Middle Adulthood (34 – 60 Years) Chapter Objectives –To examine the world of work as a context for development,
June Workshops 2011 Preparing for Unit 4, Workshop plan 1. Lessons learnt from Unit 3 2. Review of Research Methods 3. Unit 4 Timeline 4. Key Resources.
Unit 2 Don’t get stressed!. Stay in control Apply the principles you have learned to this area of study Systematic revision puts you in control!
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Chapter ONE What is Organizational Behavior?. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1.Describe what managers do. 2.Define organizational.
Chapter 12 AP Psychology. What is Emotion? Emotion is a 4 part process consisting of physiological arousal, cognitive interpretation, subjective feelings,
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Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–1 Managing Individual Behavior Motivation The intensity of a person’s desire to engage in an activity.
PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, STRESS AND HEALTH AND THE WORLD OF WORK Presented By Matthew M Ncube ILO Specialist Working Conditions and Environment Public Service.
Presented by: Jim Messina, Ph.D., NCC, CCMHC, DCMHS Assistant Professor: Troy University-Tampa Bay STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING RESILIENCE IN MILITARY MEMBERS,
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