Presentation on theme: "2-Diagnosis & klasifikasi masalah psikologis"— Presentation transcript:
12-Diagnosis & klasifikasi masalah psikologis Aska Primardi
2What is abnormal behavior? 10 different people have 10 different definition of ‘abnormal behavior’. Why?No single descriptive feature is shared by all forms of abnormal behavior, & no one criterion of “abnormality” is sufficientNo discrete boundary exists between normal & abnormal behaviorAbnormal behavior : bizarre behavior, dangerous behavior, shameful behavior
3Conformity to norms (1)Statistical infrequency or violation of social normsWhen a person’s behavior tends to conform to prevailing social norms or when this particular behavior is frequently observed in other people, the individual is not likely to come to the attention of mental health professionalsWhen a person behavior becomes patently deviant, outrageous, or otherwise nonconforming, then he/she is more likely to be categorized as “abnormal”
4Conformity to norms (2) Advantages : Cutoff points : the statistical infrequency approach is appealing because it establishes cutoff points that are quantitative in natureIntuitive appeal : those behaviors we ourselves consider abnormal would be evaluated similarly by others
5Conformity to norms (3) Problems with this definition: Choice of cutoff pointsThe number of deviationsCultural relativity
6Subjective distress (1) The perceptions of observer >< the perceptions of the affected individualThe basic data of behavior that are not observable : subjective feelings & sense of well-being
7Subjective distress (2) Advantages :Every person can assess whether they are experiencing emotional or behavioral problems and can share this information when asked to do so ( ex. Self-report inventories)Problems :The judgment depends on one’s criteria or values
8Disability or Dysfunction First step : create some degree of social (interpersonal) or occupational problems for the individual.Advantages : individuals come to realize the extent of their emotional problems, when these problems affect their family & social relationship, their performance at work/schoolProblems : Who should establish the standards for social or occupational dysfunction? The patient? The therapist? Friends? Or the employer?
9Mental IllnessLike abnormal behavior, the term ‘mental illness’ or ‘mental disorder’ is difficult to defineDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
10Mental disorderIs conceptualized as a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress or disability or with significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom. In addition, this syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event whatever its original cause, it must currently be considered a manifestation of a behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual. Neither deviant behavior (e.g. religious, political, or sexual) nor conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society are mental disorders, unless the deviance or conflict is a symptom of the dysfunction in the individual as described above
11The Importance of diagnosis Why? Categorization is essential to our survival because it allows us to make important distinctionsFunction :Information/communicationEmpirical research in psychopathologyResearch into etiology (causes)May suggest which mode of treatment is most likely to be effective
12Classification systems (1) DSM-I (1952), DSM-II (1968), DSM-III (1980), DSM-III-R (1987), DSM-IV (1994), DSM-IV-TR (2000) :Axis I : indicate the presence of any clinical disorders, or other relevant conditions, with the exception of the personality disorders & mental retardation.Axis II : personality disorders and mental retardation
13Classification Systems (2) Axis III : is used to highlight any current medical condition that may be relevant to the conceptualization or treatment of an individual on Axis I or IIAxis IV : Diagnosis, treatment, & prognosis of psychosocial and environmental problemAxis V : a quantitative estimate (1 to 100) of an individual’s overall level of functioning.
14General issues in classification Categories vs dimensionsBases of categorizationPragmatics of classificationDescriptionReliabilityValidityBiasCoverage
15Causes of abnormal behavior & mental illness ModelExplanationExample of abnormal behvBiologicalProcesses in central nervous system have gone awrySchizophrenia is caused by an excess of dopaminergic activityPsychodinamicIntrapsychic conflictSpecific phobia is due to displacement of an intraphysic conflict onto an external object that can be avoidedLearningLearned the same way normal behavior is learnedSpecific phobia is learnedCognitiveDue to maladaptive cognitionsDepression results from negative viewsHumanisticRelative neglect of one’s own self-view and overreliance on the appraisals of others when the two are incongruousGeneralized anxiety disorder reflects this overreliance and incongruity