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Crisis in Indochina - Vietnam Cuba Berlin

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1 Crisis in Indochina - Vietnam Cuba Berlin
Cold War 4 Crisis in Indochina - Vietnam Cuba Berlin

2 Geneva Accords Began on May 8, 1954 (the day after the fall of Dien Bien Phu) They were attended by the USA, USSR, UK, China and France (with representatives from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) The United States fears a communist takeover, and refuses to sign accords

3 Results of Geneva Accords
Vietnam is divided on the 17th Parallel North Vietnam ruled by Vietminh South Vietnam ruled by American sponsored Ngo Dinh Diem (catholic dictator) North and South to be reunited by “free elections in 1956 (these never happened) Laos and Cambodia are granted independence All nations except USA and S. Vietnam sign Geneva Accords

4 Domino Theory

5 Domino Theory President Eisenhower
Coins the “Domino Theory” idea US Foreign policy 1950’s - 80’s fears that a communist takeover in Vietnam would lead to the fall of all of Southeast Asia, and possibly spread to India, the Philippines and possibly Australia Begins preparations to support a non-communist Vietnamese state in the South (during the Geneva Accords) SEATO – Sept 8 ,1954 Escalation of US military personal over time

6 Cold War Latin America Cold War Policy on Latin America
Rubottom Jr. Article – Soviet Domination - Control Guetamala Operation PBSUCCESS Other Key US involvements Cuba 1950’s Chile 1973 Nicaragua 1980’s

7 Cuban Revolution In 1952, Fulgencio Batista seizes power in Cuba under a military coup He is supported by Cuba’s military, as well as the Untied States government This was due to the fact that Cuba’s economy relied mostly on sugar production and export to the United States Corruption is rampant and dissent among the Cuban people is rising


9 Fidel Castro Due to Batista’s repressive regime, Fidel came to see that armed insurrection was the only way to oppose Batista 1953 – Fidel launches his first open revolt in Santiago He is captured with his group and are placed in prison until amnesty is granted 1955 – Castro goes to Mexico and meets Che Guevara Castro and Che begin planning the next phase of revolution in Cuba


11 Invasion of Cuba November 1956 – Castro and Che Guevara land in Cuba with 82 men December 1956 – Castro’s group is discovered and all but 20 are captured Castro and Che escape to the mountains and begin a guerrilla war with their men Over the next three years, Castro and Che evade capture and their force of rebels grows

12 Over the next two years, support for Castro and his guerrilla army increases In response to Castro’s success, the Batista regime becomes more repressive This in turn provides Castro with more support May 1958 – Batista launches a major offensive against Castro’s guerrilla army This fails miserably, and Batista’s army begins to dissolve


14 Castro’s Victory With the failure of Batista’s final offensive, Castro leads his small army to Havana As Castro’s army moves towards the capital, Batista’s forces continue to retreat and surrender to the rebel forces January 1, 1959 – President Batista resigns and flees Cuba to the Dominican Republic

15 Castro in Power February 1959 – Castro is sworn in as Prime Minister
While liberals and academics in Cuba wanted elections, Castro refused under the slogan of: “Revolution first, elections later.” Castro went to work in order to eliminate the American economic control of Cuba

16 Cuban-Soviet Relations
1960 – Castro enacts policies to control the economy and angers the USA: Feb – Cuba agrees to purchase oil from the USSR When the USA owned refineries refuse to process the oil, Castro nationalizes them USSR agrees to purchase 1/5 of Cuba’s sugar USSR sends its first 100 advisors to Cuba

17 Cuban-Soviet Relations
June 1960 – Washington enacts economic sanctions against Cuba (reduces its purchases of sugar by 7 million tons) Later increases the embargo to include all exports to Cuba except food and medicine December 1960 – USSR increases its sugar purchases to ½ of all sugar produced in Cuba USSR provides Cuba with a $200million loan and begins to send arms to Castro

18 Cuban Reforms Along with increasing trade with the USSR, Castro initiates reforms that will anger the USA interests in Cuba May 1960 – Castro declares Cuba a socialist states and abolishes elections June 1960 – Cuba nationalizes USA interests and seizes $1 Billion in land and business from the USA sugar companies Opposition newspapers are closed and thousands of counter-revolutionaries are jailed

19 Bay of Pigs January 1961 – USA breaks off relations with Cuba
In response to Castro’s seizure of USA business interests and relationships with the USSR, a secret invasion is authorized While planned by Eisenhower, Kennedy’s new administration authorizes a covert invasion of Cuba April 17, ,500 Cuban exiles are sent to Cuba from Guatemala and establish a beachhead at the Bay of Pigs



22 Failure at Bay of Pigs While the USA anticipated a revolt against Castro, this failed to materialize Castro’s forces met the invasion at the beach and killed or captured all of the 1,500 invaders Castro now turns to the USSR for military protection against the USA USSR agrees and deploys nuclear ballistic missiles to Cuba to prevent USA invasion Khrushchev sends 70,000 USSR soldiers to Cuba



25 Ballistic Missiles in Cuba
As well as defending Cuba, these sites for the USSR would threaten the continental USA Previously, the USA had placed nuclear missiles in West Germany and Turkey, which could threaten the cities of the USSR With these missiles in Turkey, the USSR now had the opportunity to strike the southern and eastern of the USA


27 October 1962 During the same month of their construction, the Soviet missile sites were discovered by a U2 spy plane Their discovery included the 48 medium range and 24 intermediate range ballistic missiles (medium and short range) Kennedy went to television on the 22 of October and declared on national television that the USA would impose an air and naval “quarantine in Cuba”





32 Kennedy’s Ultimatum Kennedy sends Khrushchev a warning stating that:
1) Any missiles launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western hemisphere would be considered an act of war against the USA 2) Kennedy demands the prompt removal of the missiles from Cuba This will be the beginning of 13 days that almost leads to war between the USA and USSR


34 Cuban Missile Crisis During the next thirteen days in October, the USA and USSR prepared for war The USA placed its Strategic Air Command on full alert and armed its nuclear strike force against the USSR USA army planned to invade Cuba Cuban and USSR troops in Cuba prepared the missiles for action against a USA invasion of Cuba

35 End of Crisis October 28th, 1962
Khrushchev and Kennedy maintained secret negotiations to end the crisis In return for a pledge by the USA to not invade Cuba, Khrushchev promises to remove the missiles from Cuba Kennedy also agrees to withdraw the USA missiles from Turkey (late 1963) Oct.24, 1962 – Khrushchev orders the Soviet ships advancing to Cuba to turn around and return to the USSR

36 Berlin



39 Crisis in Berlin November 1958 – Khrushchev demands the evacuation of all four occupation powers from Berlin Khrushchev plans to turn over Soviet control to the East German government The NATO forces do not want to leave, since withdrawal would result in the western sector being absorbed by the Soviet Union’s puppet forces

40 Why Berlin in 1958? Khrushchev demanded the absorption of West Berlin into East Germany to stop the flow of East Germans migrating to the West Due to the economic miracle in West Germany, millions of Germans had migrated to West Germany Among these people were a large amount of highly skilled professionals This jeopardized the E. German recovery

41 Border Closures 1958, East Germany seals the border with Western Germany Berlin is now the only accessible way out of East Germany for many inside the communist bloc In order to reverse the situation, Khrushchev now wants NATO out of West Berlin to end the large migration situation

42 Western Reaction January 1958
All NATO countries unanimously reject the Soviet ultimatum NATO insists on maintaining their access rights and pledges to defend West Berlin from any forms of aggression Khrushchev Backs down and awaits the next president to challenge over Berlin

43 Berlin 1961

44 1961 – Berlin Crisis As was in 1958, Khrushchev again demands the withdrawal of the Western powers from West Berlin The issue of East German labour migrating to West Germany was again a major contention Khrushchev orders a 1/3 increase in the Soviet military budget


46 Kennedy’s Response In response to Khrushchev's demands, newly elected President Kennedy reaffirms the American commitment to defend Berlin He tells the USSR that force will be used if necessary, and gets $3 billion in additional defence spending from congress The draft calls are doubled in preparation for a possible confrontation

47 Berlin Wall With no agreement in sight, Khrushchev orders the Eastern sector of Berlin to be sealed off from the West August 13, Construction of the Berlin Wall begins Involves concrete and barbed wire encampments Kennedy plans for a show of force Increased military convoys Moved Tanks up to the Checkpoints – standoff with Soviets Kennedy Speech 1963 “ Ich bin ein Berliner” After the Western response was confined to diplomatic protests Symbol of the Cold War




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