JFK & LBJ faced many _________________, in addition to domestic ones. 1959-Cuba- US-supported leader __________ __________ overthrown by ______________. – Supported by many Cubans; believed Castro would help “poor exploited by rich Cubans & US business”. Castro __________________ (seized & run by gov’t) many foreign businesses. – US broke off relations, refused to accept Castro as legitimate leader. – Castro __________________________________. – US began to see Castro as threat.
Under Ike, _____________________________ developed plan to overthrow Castro. – JFK informed, supported plan. CIA trained ____________________________ to invade, overthrow Castro. – Expected Cuban people to rise up & help. April 17, 1961-____________________ began. – 15,000 Cubans invaded, stopped by Cuban troops. – JFK refused to order promised airstrikes to support attack. – ________________________________________. Bay of Pigs greatly hurt US standing in world. – Made JFK look weak.
The Berlin Crisis After WWII, Germany was divided into 4, then 2 zones. – Zones became East Germany (Communist) & West Germany (Democratic). – ______, in East Germany, also divided into two zones. After Stalin died, __________________________ became Premier of USSR. – At first meeting, JFK felt Khrushchev bullied, mistreated him; JFK wanted to show US could no be bullied. – Added ___________ in defense spending, increased draft, had ______________________ built across US. JFK went on tv, reasserted US commitment to West Berlin, West Germany.
August 1961-USSR responded by building ____________________. – __________________________, prevented East Germans from escaping. – Became THE symbol of Cold War. JFK spoke at Wall, “_____________________”. JFK and all Presidents through Reagan asserted that US would protect freedom in Germany.
Cuban Missile Crisis After Bay of Pigs, _______________________ Castro. – Began building ____________________ in Cuba, bringing in nukes. October 16, 1962, US spy plane took photos of missile sites, began _____________________. – Missiles in Cuba threatened all of US. – US had _______________________ pointed at USSR, same situation.
JFK came up with four possible US responses: – ________________________________. ________________ Gave USSR time to finish missile bases, could make JFK & US look weak. – _______________________________. Eliminate missile threat, ____________________________. Attempted invasion failed before, could lead to nuclear war with USSR. – __________________________________. Stop missile deliveries, force USSR to back off or go to war. Not sure how Khrushchev would respond. – _____________________________. Knock out missile sites. Would ________________________________, and where?
October 22, 1963-JFK went on tv. – Announced he placed US forces on high alert, _________________________________________ – Said that US would respond if agreement was not reached by certain date-war. October 25-USSR ship carrying oil stopped by blockade, allowed to proceed. – 12 more ships ordered by ___________________. October 26-Khrushchev sent JFK letter saying __________________________________ if US would end blockade, stay out of Cuba. – Sent 2 nd letter demanding US missiles be pulled out of Turkey.
JFK went on tv, accepted terms of first letter. – Secret negotiations led to JFK pulling missiles out of Turkey. Were going to be removed in Nov. anyway. Cuban Missile Crisis ended with ___________, USSR looked weak, backed down. Led to better communication between US, USSR. – ____________ installed in White House, _______. – 1963-US, USSR, UK signed ___________________ ___________________. Banned _______________________ nuclear testing.
Peaceful Policies US, USSR also competing for allies in _______ ___________________________________. JFK began ______________________________, invited Western Hemisphere nations to join. – Goal-meet basic needs for homes, _______________, health, schools in Americas. – US promised to spend $20 billion over 10 years. – Many nations viewed it as attempt to stop Communism, _______________________________. Established ______________________ to send volunteers all over world as educators, health workers, technicians to help developing nations. – Moderately successful program.
LBJ’s Foreign Policy Followed Truman Doctrine. 1965-Military gov’t in ___________________ being attacked by (Communist?) rebels. – LBJ sent in _____________________ to restore order. – Rebels stopped, elections held 1966, democracy created. JFK & LBJ both concerned with spreading Communism in _________________. – JFK sent _________________________________ to help S. Vietnam military fight Communist N. Vietnam. – LBJ did not want to escalate action in Vietnam, but was forced to in 1965.