A is for airplanes. Air planes were first made in 1903. The first person to fly in an airplane would be the Wright brothers in 1903. Airplanes have six main parts, fuselage, wings, stabilizer (or tail plane), rudder, one or more engines, and landing gear. The wing of the airplane makes the plane glide nicely through the air.
B Bark Bark is on a tree and has many different layers. Like outer bark then inner bark, then cambium, then sapwood, then in the middle is the heartwood. The Heartwood is the strongest part in the tree. Sometimes the bark is used for cork, poisons, medicine, canoes, ropes, and clothes. Also there is only tree that has white bark is the white bark pine. Bark can be used for a lot of stuff like cloths. Also a number of plants are grown for their interesting or attractive bark colorations and surface textures.
B Bernoulli’s Principle Bernoulli’s principle is the principle that allows wings to produce lift and planes and helicopters to fly. Bernoulli’s principle is a physical phenomenon that was named after the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli who lived during the eighteenth century. This principle tells us why windows tend to explode, rather than implode in hurricanes. Bernoulli’s principle holds that for fluids in an ideal state, pressure and density are inversely related, In other words, a slow-moving fluid exerts more pressure than a fast- moving fluid.
C Carbon Dioxide This gas is made of 2 oxygen atoms and 1 carbon atom Is also in the earth’s atmosphere and covers 0.039% of it. Used to help plant during photosynthesis to make sugars. This may either be consumed in respiration or used as raw material. Other compounds are used for the plants development. Produce during respiration by plants, animals, and fungi. It also depends on the plants food. It is a major part of the carbon cycle.
C is for Consumer A consumer is something that consumes things. An example of a consumer is a human being. Human beings consume things like food. Other examples of a consumer are animals and bugs. A consumer is an organism that can’t make its own food. Consumers feed on producers or other consumers. A consumer is also a person who buys goods to live. A bear is a consumer.
C C onstellations There’s a tradition of making shapes out of the night sky. There is about 88 shapes well called constellations in are night sky. Sailors navigate from stars when you cant see no land constellations help them out with that. On a usual night you can see about 1000-1500 stars in the evening. Constellations shows important stars like the Big Dipper represents Ursa Major Dictionary definition: any of various groups of stars to which definite names have been given, as Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Boötes, Cancer, Orion
D is for Deciduous A deciduous tree loses its leaves every fall. The tallest deciduous tree was 33.53 meters. Normally they only get to around 30 meters. In the fall before the trees lose their leaves, the leaves change color. Normally when they change colors they change to red, orange or yellow. Some kinds of deciduous trees are maple or oak.
D is for Decomposers Decomposers take dead plants and animals and break them down. They also break down poop of other organisms. Flies, wasps and cockroaches are decomposers. Earth worms are decomposers to, but they only break down plants. If a worm finds a rotten decaying apple it will eat it. After it is done it will release waste that helps the soil. Other worms like round worms will eat dead animals to.
E E is for Earth Earth is the only planet that can sustain life source. Plants, animals, humans and even more live on Earth. Oxygen is in the atmosphere and a damaged ozone layer protects the Earth like a force field almost. It is the third planet from the sun and is the fifth largest. It is thought to be 4.54 billion years old. Earth is covered with 70.78% of water and 29.22% of land. Earth is the only place people can live and is the best planet we have.
E clipse One consequence of the Moon's orbit about the Earth is that the Moon can shadow the Sun's light as viewed from the Earth, or the Moon can pass through the shadow cast by the Earth. The earlier is called a solar eclipse and the later is called a lunar eclipse. The small tilt of the Moon's orbit with respect to the plane of the eclipse and the small weirdness of the lunar orbit make such eclipses much less common than they would be otherwise, but partial or total eclipses are actually rather frequent. The frequency is rather high there is supposed to be eighteen eclipses from 1996-2020. There are three types of solar eclipses observed from earth are. Total solar eclipses occur when the umbra of the moons shadow touches a region in the surface of the earth. Partial solar eclipses occur when the penumbra of the moon’s shadow passes over a region on the earth’s surface. Annular solar eclipses occur when a region of the earth’s surface comes in line with the umbra, but the distances are such that the tip of the umbra does not reach the earth’s surface. A total solar eclipse requires the umbra of the Moon's shadow to touch the surface of the Earth. Because of the relative sizes of the Moon and Sun and their relative distances from Earth, the path of totality is usually very narrow (hundreds of kilometers across).
F Food Chain Food chains how animals eat each other to survive. A food chain is a complete balance of life. On the food chain if one animal dies maybe from hunting or fishing the animal that eats the animal which had died that animal is more likely to die as well. Food chains are on land and in the sea or ocean. IN THE SEA/OCEAN-Small animals that eat plankton than become food for the larger fish such as tuna and mackerel. Then those fish are eaten by larger fish and animal such as the shark and dolphin. The shark is the last fish on the food chain nothing eats the shark. ON THE LAND- On the land the food chain is pretty much the same. The small animals eat plants and or bugs. Then the larger animals eat the smaller animals then the largest animals eat the larger animals. Who’s the top of the food chain on land you may ask? Well it us human we are the top of the food chain. That's why we rely so heavily on all plants and animals so we can live. A break in the food chain in the sea, ocean or on land can impact everyone.
The Greenhouse Effect is where the suns razes and gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrous oxide, and methane travel down to earth. When they go to bounce up from the earth’s surface and back into space only 26% of the heat goes and scatters into space by clouds and other atmospheric particles. About 19% of the heat is absorbed into clouds. Of the remaining 55% of the solar energy still passing through Earth’s atmosphere only 4% is reflected from the surface back into space. On average 50% of the heat bounces again back to the surface of Earth. This process is called the greenhouse effect because it is very similar to a greenhouse. Greenhouses looks like a house covered in glass. This glass is special because it absorbs the suns energy but the energy can’t bounce bat out of it. So it keeps the greenhouse nice and humid for flowers to survive in. This is helpful especially in the winter. G is for Greenhouse Effect….
G Growth Rings Rings which are present on a cross-section of a tree trunk which represent and determine the age of a tree. A growth ring layer in secondary xylem seen in a cross section. The middle ring tells you when the tree was first born. Ring thickness' can vary from approximately 1" to 0.02" depending on varying factors. There are 6 ways to determine a life of a tree by their growth rings. They are GROWING ON A SLOPE, FIRE, DROUGHT, DEAD BRANCH, CONSTRUTION, and an INSECT ATTACK. If you look at the growth rings on a tree and you know the difference from GROWING ON A SLOPE, FIRE, and DROUGT, DEAD BRANCH AND an INSECT ATTACK you can tell if something had happened to a tree so if all the rings were sloped to one side than you would figure out that the tree was GROWING ON A SLOPE.
A helicopter is an aircraft that can take off and land vertically. It can hover in one place, do a three sixty rotations and can move backwards, forwards, and sideways while in the air. It can change direction quickly and can stop and hover in an instant. The helicopter has a main rotor that is mounted on a shaft above the fuselage. As the blades rotate an air flow is made over them resulting in lift. A pilot maneuvers the heli by changing the pitch, or angle, of the rotor blades as they move through the air. An engine is used to create force needed to lift the aircraft and its passengers and cargo. Gas turbine engines are one of the most commonly used in helicopters. The pilot controls the helicopter by rudder pedals which turn the heli right and left. A cyclic pitch stick (joy stick) tilts the heli backwards, forwards or sideways. A collective pitch stick allows the helicopter to climb and descend vertically. H elicopters
J is for Jet The nozzle of a jet is the exhaust duct of the engine. That’s how the jet makes thrust. Thrust is a forward force that pushes the engine and then the jet moves forward. Mass is the downward force that pushes the jet to the centre of the earth. Lift forces the jet upward. Drag pushes the jet parallel to the relative wind. Jets along with airplanes, and helicopters also carry people to the hospital in another city if there really sick.
L is for lichens There are more than 350 different types of lichens. There are many different shapes, sizes and shades of lichens. Lichens live on trees, rocks, soil and many other surfaces. Lichens absorb nutrients from the rain. If it is very badly polluted lichens can die or won’t grow. Lichens can be used for medicine, dye for clothing, perfume and are used to study pollution levels. Lichens are a very important part of trees and forests.
J is for the magnificent creation of the jet engine without this the Jet would not be that good and it would not fly at all. The engine is the most important part of the jet or plane. The Jet engine is a part of the jet that keeps it working it holds the fuel and other items to help it fly. The engine is in many vehicles and it is a big part of science it Is in the helicopter a plane trucks and cars. The engine powers most of the jet. The pilot controls the jet but it is powered by the engine from the fuel. The jet engine fits into science because it is part of the jet in the air and aerodynamics unit.
M ercury Mercury weather is amazingly hot in the day time but when it comes to night its colder then than North Pole. The temperatures are in the day time it can get up to 427 Celsius (801 Fahrenheit) and plummets to -173 Celsius (-279 Fahrenheit) at night. Mercury ’ s days are one thousand four hundred seven hours and thirty minutes long imagine that as one of earth ’ s days. The length of the year is eighty-eight days. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. Mercury is 35 983 095 miles (57 909 178 kilometers) away from the sun
M Moon phases Moon phases are how the natives knew when it was time to plant crops or when a year had past by. Also it takes 48 days to complete the phases of the moon. These are the phases of the moon it starts with a new moon then a waxing crescent and then a first quarter and then a waxing gibbous, then a full moon that comes once a month. Also there is a waning gibbous and then a last quarter then a waning crescent. Then the cycle starts all over again.
N Newton ’ s third Law Newton’s third law says for every reaction there is a equal or opposite reaction. That means if you were to run your legs push back and that’s what gives you your forward motion. Also the action for a balloon is the air rushes down and the reaction for a balloon is the balloon goes up.
N N is for New Moon The New Moon is the first part of the phases of the moon. The next two phases is the Waxing Crescent and then the First Quarter. The following two are the Waxing Gibbous and the Full Moon. Waning Gibbous, Last Quarter the Waning Crescent are the last three phases. The phases then continue in a circle shown on the diagram below. In all there are eight phases of the moon. The moon is also known as the night’s sun.
O O is for Omnivore An omnivore is not a carnivore or a herbivore. An omnivore is an animal that eats both plants and meat. Some examples of omnivores are humans, iguanas, aardvarks, sloths, opossums and piranhas. Humans are omnivores because they eat meat and vegetables. It’s the same with the rest of the animals listed above. There are thousands of omnivores on Earth today. Some dinosaurs were omnivores, herbivores and carnivores. The pictures below from left to right is an aardvark and an opossum.
P is for Poop Deck…… Puppis is a constellation in the sky; its Latin word means “ The Poop Deck ” which is now the professional word for this constellation. The Poop Deck once belonged to a larger constellation known as Argo Navis. Argo Navis was cut into three sections; Carina, (the keel of the ship) Puppis, (The Poop Deck) and Vela (the sails.) The Poop Deck now occupies 673 square degrees of the sky and ranks 20 th in constellation size. The Poop Deck is visible to all observers; it is easiest to spot in February.
S is for Saturn…. Saturn is a gassy planet. It has fast winds in the upper atmosphere. When the winds are combined with rising heat it creates the yellowish gold rings surrounding Saturn. Saturn has a diameter of 75,000 miles. Almost ten times the size of Earth! It is also the second largest planet in our solar system. One year on earth is the equivalent of 29.5 years on Saturn! Also Saturn isn ’ t actually a solid planet. It spins so fast that the liquid material moves closer to the equator. So if you were to fly up to Saturn in a rocket ship and land on it, it would be like landing on the ocean. Saturn ’ s atmosphere is mostly made of hydrogen and helium.
S keleton A skeleton is an inner framework made of bone and cartilage. Bones are the hard material of a skeleton. The skeleton supports and/or protects the softer body parts of a fish, bird, or human. These animals are called vertebrates because they all have a back bone. The skeleton is flexible, bony framework found in all vertebrate animals. The skeleton maintains a body shape, protects the vital organs, and provides a system of muscle levers that allow the body movement. The skeleton contains bone marrow, the blood- forming tissues of the body. Bone marrow stores needed minerals such as calcium and phosphorus and releases them into the blood.
S keleton Continued…… A human skeleton generally forms about two hundred six separate bones out of cartilage as it develops to maturity. Bones are connected to neighboring bones by joints. Joints are either movable as in the arm and leg or immovable as in skull.
T is for Tracks…. Tracks can be made by people, bears, mice, squirrels, cows, cars and many more things. A human makes tracks with their feet usually. When people walk they put pressure to their feet. If a human was stepping in soft mud then the pressure they put onto their foot would make an indent of he/she ’ s shoe into the mud. Or if they stepped in the mud, and some mud got stuck to their shoe, and they walked onto the sidewalk or pavement after they stepped in mud or even a water puddle, then they would leave their track with the mud or water on the pavement. That is the same way that animals can make prints too!
U is for Uranus Uranus is the 7 th planet from the sun. It is the 3 rd largest planet in diameter. Uranus was discovered by William Herschel in 1781. It orbits the sun once every 84.01 earth years. It is 2.87 billion kilometers away from the sun. It has at least 22 moons, the biggest ones are Titania and Oberon. The atmosphere is 83% hydrogen, 15% helium and 2% methane. In 1977 the first 9 rings were discovered.
X-rays Doctors use x-rays to see if people have done something to there bones or something inside them. X-rays were discovered by a German physicist named Wilhelm roentgenin 1895. x-rays are able to penetrate though skin because of calcium in are bones they are considered atoms which make x-rays possible. These thing are used for checking baggage at an airport or to look at a bullet that has entered a body for detectives and they can use them to look at teeth at the dentist. Dictionary definition: Often, x-rays. a form of electromagnetic radiation, similar to light but of shorter wavelength and capable of penetrating solids and of ionizing gases.
X X is for xylem The xylem is the woody part of plants. It is also water- conducting tissue consisting mainly of tracheids and vessels. It also supports the plant. Surrounding the xylem is the cambium (white) and phloem (green on top). All of these parts are incorporated in the stem. Also in the stem is the cortex and epidermis. All of these things would be in the stem of roses, lilies and dandelions.
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