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Presentation on theme: "THE EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM"— Presentation transcript:


2 Carbon dioxide photosynthesis Water vapour water cycle Nitrogen
EARTH ATMOSPHERE Oxygen living things Carbon dioxide photosynthesis Water vapour water cycle Nitrogen Ozone layer reduces harmful radiation HYDROSPHERE Liquid water Saltwater : oceans and seas Freshwater : rivers, lakes and under ground ice GEOSPHERE mantle crust core

3 THE EARTH AND THE MOON The Earth is tilted on its axis.
MOVEMENT OF THE EARTH Orbit winter – tilted away from the Sun Seasons summer- tilted towards Sun. Over 365 days. Rotation Day and night Anticlockwise on its axis. Twenty-four hours. The moon is about four times smaller than the Earth. It’s the Earth’s only natural satellite. The moon orbits the Earth and takes about 28 days and the same time to complete one rotation. The moon’s gravity is too weak to have atmosphere. The moon receives light from the Sun and it reflects some sunlight to the Earth. We can only see the illuminated part facing the Earth.

4 Although half of the moon is always illuminated, we can only see the illuminated part facing the Earth. This is why, when we look at the moon on different nights during the lunar month, its shape changes. The different shapes are called the phases of the moon.

Stars are enormous spheres of gas where nuclear reactions take place. The nuclear reactions produce light and heat. Classified by Colour: blue (hottest and youngest), yellow (Sun), orange, red (coolest) or white. It depends on its temperature. Size: - smallest stars are smaller than the Earth. - White dwarfs: very small stars. - Giant stars: enormous stars. Red giant stars can have a diameter 500 times that of the Sun. - The Sun is an average star and its diameter is over 100 times the Earth’s diameter. Luminosity: amount of light from a star that reaches the Earth. It depends on the size, how hot it is and how far it is from the earth. STARS Constellations are groups of stars. Great Bear: is named because of its shape. CONSTELLATIONS Galaxies are enormous systems of stars, dust and gas that are held together by the force of gravity. They are constantly moving through space. Sometimes collide and a smaller galaxy becomes part of a larger galaxy. There are billions of galaxies in the universe. They are divided into groups by their shape: spiral, elliptical or irregular. GALAXIES MORE

6 GALAXIES GALAXIES spiral irregular elliptical
Our solar system is part of a spiral galaxy called the Milky way. - It’s near the end of one of the arms of the galaxy. - It’s about 30,000 light years away from the centre. Elliptical galaxies can be round or oval in shape. - They are the largest. Irregular galaxies have no real shape. - They are probably young galaxies where new stars are forming. GALAXIES GALAXIES spiral irregular elliptical

7 Planets in the solar system
The solar system is made up of the Sun and the celestial bodies that orbit it. Eight planets orbit the Sun. They orbit in ellipses. SOLAR SYSTEM INNER PLANETS They are all rocky. Mercury Its temperature is either very hot or very cold. Venus It has an atmosphere of carbon dioxide with thick clouds of toxic sulphuric. Earth It supports life Mars It has the highest volcano in the solar system. OUTER PLANETS They are all made de gas. They are cold and dark. They have several moons. Jupiter It is the largest planet Saturn It has thousands of rings and very strong winds. Neptune It has a fast rotation but a very long orbit. Uranus It rotates on a very tilted axis.

8 Asteroids, comets and meteoroids
It’s a rocky, uneven mass that orbit the Sun. They can be very big or small. The biggest are bigger than a dwarf planet. Most orbit in the asteroid belt, between Mars and Jupiter. Other beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. It could hit the Earth but the Jupiter’s gravity holds on the other side of mars. It’s made of ice, dust and gases. They come from areas of the solar system beyond Neptune. They have three parts: Nucleus is made of frozen water and gases. Coma is a giant cloud of dust and gases which surrounds the nucleus. Tail is made of electrically charged gases and dust. It always points away from the Sun. The coma and tail form when the Sun melts the nucleus. COMET METEOROID It forms when asteroid collides or breaks up. It’s the burning rock. The streak of light caused burning rock is called meteor. Friction caused by air particles rubbing against a meteoroid's surface makes meteor burn. Meteor showers see when the Earth travels through a stream of ice, dusty debris left by a comet. Meteorite is a piece of meteoroid that lands on Earth. It can make a large grater.


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