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Chapter 13: Earth, Moon, and Beyond Lesson 1: How Does Earth’s Orbit Affect Seasons? Lesson 2: How Do Earth and the Moon Compare? Lesson 3: What Makes.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13: Earth, Moon, and Beyond Lesson 1: How Does Earth’s Orbit Affect Seasons? Lesson 2: How Do Earth and the Moon Compare? Lesson 3: What Makes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13: Earth, Moon, and Beyond Lesson 1: How Does Earth’s Orbit Affect Seasons? Lesson 2: How Do Earth and the Moon Compare? Lesson 3: What Makes Up Our Solar System?

2 Lesson 1: Vocabulary  Sun: star at the center of our universe.  rotate: to spin on an axis.  axis: An imaginary line that passes through Earth’s center and its North and South poles.  revolve: To travel in a closed path.  orbit: The path one body takes in space as it revolves around another.  equator: An imaginary line around Earth equally distant from North and South poles.

3 Lesson 1  Each day the sun appears to rise, move across the sky, and set.  But it’s really Earth that is moving. Not the sun.  Earth rotates (spins) on its axis (imaginary line).

4 Lesson 1  Sunrise and sunset happen at different times in different parts of the world.  Long ago, each place used its own local system of time.  This became confusing for people traveling long distances.  In 1884, people set up a time system.

5 Lesson 1  The new time system divided the world into time zones.  All the places located in a specific time zone have the same time.

6 Lesson 1  Most places on Earth have seasons.  Summer is warmer and we have more hours of daylight.  Winter is cooler and we have fewer hours of daylight.  The seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth on its axis.

7 Lesson 1  As Earth revolves around the sun, different parts of Earth are tilted toward Earth.  When your part of Earth is tilted toward the sun, it is summer for you.  The path that Earth moves on around the sun is called its orbit.

8 Lesson 1  At the North and South poles, summer is 3 months of daylight with no darkness!  Winter at the poles is 6 months of darkness!  But even with 6 months of sunlight in the summer, it is still very cold in the South Pole.  This is because the sun’s rays to the South Pole are indirect rays.

9 Lesson 1  At the equator, it is warm all year long.  Days and nights are about 12 hours each. All year long.  Areas near the equator receive direct rays all year through.

10 Lesson 2 : Vocabulary  Moon: Any natural body that revolves around a planet.  Craters: Large, bowl-shaped areas on the moon’s surface.  Eclipse: Happens when one body in space blocks sunlight from another.  Refraction: The bending of light from the sun.  Moon phases: The different shapes of the moon.

11 Lesson 2: How Do Earth and Moon Compare?  The Moon and Earth:  Earth’s moon is a natural body that revolved around the Earth.  Earth and moon are similar because they are both rocky and dense, they both have craters, and they are both made of similar elements.

12 Lesson 2: How Do Earth and Moon Compare?  There are many ways in which the Earth and moon are quite different as well.  The moon is much smaller and has less gravity.  The moon does not have much of an atmosphere or liquid water.  The astronauts who walked on the moon had to wear space suits so that they could breathe.  There is also no life on the moon.

13 Lesson 2: How Do Earth and Moon Compare?  Phases of the Moon:  On some nights, the moon seems round while other nights it look like a half circle or sliver.  Both the moon and Earth are always moving which make them look different.  The moon does not make its own light and only reflects lights from the sun.  As the moon orbits Earth, different parts of it face the sun.  This is what causes the moon to appear in different shapes (moon phases).

14 Lesson 2: How Do Earth and Moon Compare?  Eclipses:  Sometimes one body in space blocks the sunlight from another body.  When the moon is between Earth and the sun, it makes a shadow on Earth.  This is called a solar eclipse.  When a full moon passes through Earth’s shadow, it makes a lunar eclipse.  Earth blocks the sun’s light from reaching the moon.  During a lunar eclipse, the moon looks red which is caused by refraction.  Refraction is the bending of sun’s light.

15 Lesson 3: Vocabulary  Star: is a very large ball of hot, glowing gases in space.  Solar system: Is made up of a star (sun) and the objects that orbit the star.  Constellation: A group of stars that appears to form a picture.  Universe: Is everything that exists.  Galaxies: Groups of stars, dust, and gas, in the universe.  Planets: Bodies that revolve around the sun.

16 Lesson 3: What Makes Up Our Solar System?  The Sun and Other Stars:  The sun is a star at the center of our solar system.  The sun is a million times larger than Earth.  The sun is only an averaged sized star.  At night you can see groups of stars.  Sometimes they form pictures or constellations.

17 Lesson 3: What Makes Up Our Solar System?  The Inner Planets:  Our solar systems has 8 planets.  A planet revolves around a star (sun).  The four planets closest to the sun are the inner planets.  They are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.

18 Lesson 3: What Makes Up Our Solar System?  The Outer Planets:  There are 4 outer planets. They are: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.  These are called gas giants because they are made of gases like hydrogen and helium.  Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system.  A huge storm on Jupiter has lasted more than 300 years and is called the “Red Spot”.  All the gas giants have rings around them and moons orbiting them.  The rings are made of ice, dust, rocks, and frozen gas.

19 Lesson 3: What Makes Up Our Solar System?  Beyond the Solar System:  The universe includes everything that exists.  Within the universe there are 1 billion galaxies that exist.  A galaxy is gas, dust, and a group of stars.  Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is spiral shaped.


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