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Adaptive Hypermedia Dr. Alexandra Cristea

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Presentation on theme: "Adaptive Hypermedia Dr. Alexandra Cristea"— Presentation transcript:

1 Adaptive Hypermedia Dr. Alexandra Cristea

2 Definitions Why AH? Application areas What to adapt? Adapt to what? How to adapt - past? Obstacles AH New solutions 1. Adaptive Hypermedia of the Past, Present and Future

3 + presentation m.

4 What is Adaptive Hypermedia? Hypermedia –different media types used in a single application (text, images, sound, video, …) –non-linear structure with navigation through hyper-links Adaptive –application forms a model of the context in which it is used (user, place, time, device, etc.) –application adapts to that context (can show different information, different media, different links, etc.) –adaptation and user/ presentation modeling interact with each other (or else we say the application is adaptable, not adaptive) is more than the Web!!

5 Index Definitions Why AH? Application areas What to adapt? Adapt to what? How to adapt - past? Obstacles AH New solutions

6 The need for personalization

7 Why AH? Problems with hypermedia applications: –information overload: no time or interest to process all –excessive navigational freedom: “lost in hyperspace” which links are relevant (for this user) ? –comprehension: order (a.o.) may be relevant: what has the user seen before when reaching a certain node? –presentation: what fits the user’s screen? how much network bandwidth and processing power is available?

8 Index Definitions Why AH? Application areas What to adapt? Adapt to what? How to adapt - past? Obstacles AH New solutions

9 Application areas AH Areas –Education –Commerce –Government –others Adaptation types –Adaptive Help –Adaptive Search –Expert systems – AI –others

10 Index Definitions Why AH? Application areas What to adapt? Adapt to what? How to adapt - past? Obstacles AH New solutions

11 What can be adapted? – classical views Adaptive presentation: –change which information is shown –change how that information is shown Adaptive navigation support: –change which links are shown –change how these links are shown –change the link destinations

12 Adaptive Presentation

13 Adaptive Navigation Support

14 Example from 2L690 Before reading about Xanadu the URL page shows: –… In Xanadu (a fully distributed hypertext system, developed by Ted Nelson at Brown University, from 1965 on) there was only one protocol, so that part could be missing. … After reading about Xanadu this becomes: –… In Xanadu there was only one protocol, so that part could be missing. …

15 ISIS Tutor with Link Annotation The wrong example:

16 Example from Interbook 1. Concept role 2. Current concept state 3. Current section state 4. Linked sections state √

17 TV Scout: What’s on Tonight?

18 TV Scout: Forms and Graphical Interface

19 Index Definitions Why AH? Application areas What to adapt? Adapt to what? How to adapt - past? Obstacles AH New solutions

20 Adapt to what? User  user model (UM) Goals  goal model (GM) Domain  domain model (DM) Environment  presentation model (PM)

21 User modelling is always about guessing …

22 Classical User Model: Overlay UM user’s knowledge = subset of expert’s knowledge goal of tutoring: to enlarge this subset. This model is particularly appropriate when the (teaching) material can be represented as a prerequisite hierarchy.

23

24 Adapt to what (else)? Knowledge about the subject domain (and possibly also knowledge about the system) Preferences Interests Learning or cognitive styles Background: profession, language, prospect, capabilities, experience, age Navigation history

25 User model population (initialization) ex. Concept1 Concept2 Concept3 Knowledge: 0 Knowledge: 10 Knowledge: 20 Interest: 50 Age group: 10 years Learning style: unknown overlayfree

26 Adapt to what? User  user model (UM) Goals  goal model (GM) Domain  domain model (DM) Environment  presentation model (PM)

27 Adapt to what? Goal (initial) purpose of the hypermedia answer to question –“Why should the user use the hypermedia system and what could the user actually achieve?” Goals can be local or global. –Local goals may changed quite often. For example, the problem-solving goal is a local one, which changes from one educational problem to another several times within a session. –Global goal can be the pedagogical / commercial goal.

28 Adapt to what? User  user model (UM) Goals  goal model (GM) Domain  domain model (DM) Environment  presentation model (PM)

29 Adapt to what? Adapt to Domain model properties

30 Adapt to what? User  user model (UM) Goals  goal model (GM) Domain  domain model (DM) Environment  presentation model (PM)

31 Context / environment –aspects of the user’s environment, like browsing device, window size, network bandwidth, processing power, quality of service, etc. Adapt to what?

32 Index Definitions Why AH? Application areas What to adapt? Adapt to what? How to adapt? Obstacles AH New solutions

33 Adaptation model How do the previous models interact (schematic model) The only dynamic part of the model Traditionally, a set of rules

34 Classic loop (Brusilovsky, ‘01) ++ / Presentation Model

35 Adaptive vs. adaptable adaptable adaptive personalized User-tuned System-tuned

36 Gerhard Fischer 1 HFA Lecture, OZCHI’2000

37 A Comparison between Adaptive and Adaptable Systems Gerhard Fischer 1 HFA Lecture, OZCHI’2000

38 Index Definitions Why AH? Application areas What to adapt? Adapt to what? How to adapt - past? Obstacles AH New solutions

39 New, dynamic view of AH t ext link Bits & pieces Bit contains text, MM or link Generation: -only text -only link -text & link t ext link

40 Solutions in short Standardization Authoring Openness New theoretical frameworks needed! New implementations!

41 Concluding Adaptive Hypermedia of Past, Present & Future –Definitions –Why AH? –Application areas –What to adapt? –Adapt to what? –How to adapt - past? –(some) New solutions

42 IAS and its Projects

43 Reading: read chapters 'The Adaptive Web': –Adaptive Content Presentation, –Adaptive Navigation Support, –Open Corpus AEH, –Privacy-Enhanced Web Personalization, –Usability Engineering for Adaptive Web –See webpage for more From: 122p/ 122p/

44 Any questions?


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