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Adaptive Hypermedia and The Semantic Web Dr. Alexandra Cristea

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Presentation on theme: "Adaptive Hypermedia and The Semantic Web Dr. Alexandra Cristea"— Presentation transcript:

1 Adaptive Hypermedia and The Semantic Web Dr. Alexandra Cristea

2 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Authoring

3 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Regular learning material Linear One story line Granularity doesnt matter Reuse is no issue (normally) Book-like structure

4 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Intelligent learning material Non-Linear Several story lines Granularity does matter Reuse is an issue Hypermedia-like structure so …

5 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Authoring ILS, AHS content alternatives, : domain model adaptation techniques & : adaptation model whole user-description design : user model complicated heavy task => authors require help, guidelines & automation facilities. for AHS to spread widely => facilitate author work (Open Learning Repositories)

6 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Authoring & standardization Formalization attempts: –standardising the whole procedure Research on a systematic base –clear explicit models for adaptive authoring

7 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Authoring perspectives Conceptual view: defining concepts, interrelationships and resources. Navigational (goal) view: defining pages content and navigation behavior. Presentation view: defining presentation aspect like frame, frameset, and window.

8 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Content alternatives (attributes) ex. Concept Title: Adaptive Hypermedia Introduction: Adaptive Hypermedia deals with personalization and adaptation in hypertext and hypermedia. Keywords: adaptive; hypermedia; hypertext; personalization Conclusion: Adaptive Hypermedia deals with personalization and adaptation in hypertext and hypermedia. Text: Adaptive Hypermedia is a special type of hypermedia that customizes the information that each user receives. Based on an interpretation of the users current needs, interests, goals, knowledge, etc., adaptive hypermedia systems provide the users with information...

9 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 User model population (initialization) ex. Concept1 Concept2 Concept3 Knowledge: 0 Knowledge: 10 Knowledge: 20 Interest: 50 Age group: 10 years Learning style: unknown overlayfree

10 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Presentation model population (initialization) ex. Concept1 Concept2 Concept3 Color char: Red Color char: Blue Color char: Black Page no.: 3 Min char size: 10 points Screen resolution: 1024x768 pixels overlayfree Connection: 56kbps modem

11 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Adaptation techniques ex. Concept1 Concept2 Concept3 prerequisite

12 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Adaptive navigation & presentation

13 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Adaptive navigation & presentation

14 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Adaptive navigation & presentation

15 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Adaptive navigation & presentation

16 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Adaptive navigation & presentation

17 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Adaptive navigation & presentation

18 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Adaptive navigation & presentation

19 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Adaptive navigation & presentation

20 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Authoring Roles – regular LM Author performs all (or at least most of) the tasks required in creation of the learning material

21 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Authoring Roles – intelligent LM Author could perform all (or at least most of) the tasks required in creation of the learning material Ideally, authoring roles would be applicable, depending on the specialization of the author –Domain –Adaptation mechanism –Meta-data –etc.

22 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Conclusion authoring The tasks are divided The domain is restructured and divided A lot of new components emerge So we need a framework to describe this new structure

23 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 LAOS 1.What is LAOS? 2.Concept based adaptation 3.LAOS components 4.Why LAOS? 5.LAOS authoring steps 6.Future directions

24 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 What is LAOS?

25 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 What is LAOS ? a generalized model for generic adaptive hypermedia authoring based on the AHAM model based on concept maps WWW03-cristea- mooij.dochttp://wwwis.win.tue.nl/~alex/HTML/Minerva/papers/ WWW03-cristea- mooij.doc

26 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Why LAOS?

27 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 General motivation for layer distributed information Flexibility Expressivity (semantics: also meta-data) Reusability Non-redundancy Cooperation Inter-operability Standardization

28 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 LAOS components

29 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 LAOS components domain model (DM), goal and constraints model (GM), user model (UM), adaptation model (AM) and presentation model (PM)

30 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007

31 LAOS motivation in detail Why domain model (DM) ? Why goal and constraints model (GM)? Why user model (UM)? Why adaptation model (AM)? and Why presentation model (PM)?

32 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 LAOS motivation in detail Why domain model (DM) ? Because of historical AHS, ITS, AHAM Why goal and constraints model (GM)? Why user model (UM)? Why adaptation model (AM)? and Why presentation model (PM)?

33 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 LAOS motivation in detail Why domain model (DM) ? Why goal and constraints model (GM)? Why user model (UM)? Because of historical ITS, AHS, AHAM Why adaptation model (AM)? and Why presentation model (PM)?

34 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 LAOS motivation in detail Why domain model (DM) ? Why goal and constraints model (GM)? Why user model (UM)? Why adaptation model (AM)? and Because of AHAM – see also LAG !! Why presentation model (PM)?

35 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 LAOS motivation in detail Why domain model (DM) ? Why goal and constraints model (GM)? Why user model (UM)? Why adaptation model (AM)? and Why presentation model (PM)? Because of Kuypers, AHAM

36 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 LAOS motivation in detail Why domain model (DM) ? Why goal and constraints model (GM)? Because of book metaphor Also because of goal adaptation!! (see adapt to what?) Why user model (UM)? Why adaptation model (AM)? and Why presentation model (PM)?

37 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 GM book metaphor – why? Domain model: –equivalent to skip the presentation and just tell the user to read the book. search space too big Not only one purposeful orientation

38 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 GM motivation intermediate authoring step, goal & constraints related: goals: focused presentation –specific end-state constraints: limit search space –DM filter

39 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 DM

40 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 GM

41 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Authoring steps in LAOS domainSTEP 1: write domain concepts + concept hierarchy + attributes (contents) + other domain relations GMSTEP 2: add content related adaptive features regarding GM (design alternatives – AND, OR, weights, etc.) UMSTEP 3: add UM related features (simplest way, tables, with attribute-value pairs for user-related entities (AHAM); UM can be represented as a concept map) adaptationSTEP 4: decide among adaptation strategies, write in adaptation language medium-level adaptation rules or give the complete set of low level rules (such as condition-action (CA) or IF-THEN rules). presentationSTEP 5: define format (presentation means-related; define chapters)

42 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 LAOS components – definitions

43 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Domain concept model Definition 1. An AHS domain map DM is determined by the tuple, –where C: set of concepts, – L: set of links, –Att a set of DM attributes Definition 2. A domain concept c DMi. C is defined by –where A : set of attrs and C : set of sub-concepts. Constraint 1. A min is the minimal set of (standard) attributes required for each concept to have (A A min ). –for sufficient meta-data –if A min = required standard attributes.

44 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Domain concept model – cont. composite domain conceptDefinition range 2.1. A domain concept c C is a composite domain concept if c.C. atomic domain conceptDefinition range 2.2. A concept c C is an atomic domain concept if c.C=. domain linkDefinition 3. A domain link l L is a tuple with S,E {DM i.c k } i,k (S, E ) start and end sets of DM concept instances, respectively; N set of labels of the links; W set of weights of the links.

45 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Domain concept model – cont. Definition 4. A domain attribute a DMi.C.A is a tuple, where –type is the name of the DM attribute; –val is the value (contents) of the DM attribute. Constraint 2. concept c must be involved at least in one link l. This special relation is called hierarchical link (link to ancestor concept). Exception: root concept.

46 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 algebraic operators & respective operations over the model constructors –create, edit destructors –delete visualization or extractors –list, view, check compositors –repeat Effects –restructuring (constructors, destructors and any compositors using at least one operator belonging to the previous categories) or –structure neutral (visualization and any compositors applied to visualization alone)

47 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 [1][1] We assume here that val is defined analogously for CM, c, l. operation & operator Range of operation in DMDescription Create & C Input (atomic): optionally object name (text label) of objects such as for DM x,; father concept for c; ids (numerical) of ( S, E ) and labels, weights for l, a i [h] (with h>A min ) Input (set): as above for sets of objects {c j } +,{l j } +,{a i [h]} + (with 1 h A min ) · Output space: DM, C, L, A · Output: DM x, {c j } *,{l j } *,{a i [h].type}* creates one object such as a concept map, concept, link, a non- standard attribute creates sets of objects such as set of new hierarchical child nodes and/ or links connected to the same parent or a full standard attributes set

48 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Edit & E Input: object ids or expression Output: { {DM x, c, l, a i [h]}.type}* edits the object value Delete & D Input: as the two above together, condition or expression Output space: DM, C, L, A deletes an object (set) from the corresponding structure or empties the contents

49 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 List & L Input: Any sets from above, optional condition or expression Output: interface object lists the objects of the set(s) View & V Input: (set of) object id-s and mode (e.g., Graph/ Text) Output: interface object gives alternative views of the results to the author Check & Ck Input: (set of) object id-s from DM, C, L, A, checking goal, (and implicitly their value domains) Output: interface object checks the checking goal for the selected object and informs about value domain trespasses Repeat & R Input: Any of above, number of times or other stopping condition Output space: same as operation performed Repeats any of the operations above

50 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Goal and constraints model constraint conceptDefinition 5. A constraint concept g GMi.G in GM is defined by the tuple GA is a set of attributes; G a set of sub-concepts; DMj.c C is the ancestor DM concept and DMj.c.a A is an attribute of that concept; GMi is the name of the GM map instance to whom it belongs. constraint linkDefinition 6. A constraint link gl L is a tuple with S,E {DMi.ck}i,k (S, E ) start and end sets of GM concept instances, respectively; N set of labels of the links; W set of weights of the links.

51 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Description Create & C Atomic operation & operators Range of operation in GM Input: original concept id in GM and attribute id; optionally object name (text label) of objects such as for GM x, father concept for c; ids (numeric) of (S, E); labels, weightsfor l Input: as above for sets of objects {c j } +,{l j } +,{a i [h].var} + (1 h 2 ) · Output space: GM, G, L, A · Output: GM x, {c j } *,{l j } *, {a i [h].type}* creates object e.g. GM map, concept, link, a non-standard attribute creates sets of objects e.g., set of new hierarchical child nodes +/- links to the same parent or a full standard attributes set Edit & E Input: object ids or expression Output: { {GM x, c, l, a i [h]}.val}* edits the object value Delete & D Input: as the two above together, condition or expression Output space: GM, G, L, A deletes an object (set) from the corresponding structure or empties the contents

52 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 List & L Input: Any sets from above, optional condition or expression Output: interface object lists the objects of the set(s) View & V Input: (set of) object id-s and mode (e.g., Graph/ Text) Output: interface object gives alternative views of the results to the author Check & Ck Input: (set of) object id-s from GM, G, L, A c, checking goal, (and implicitly their value domains) Output: interface object checks the checking goal for the selected object and informs about value domain trespasses Repeat & R Input: Any of above, number of times or other stopping condition Output space: same as operation performed Repeats any of the operations above

53 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 What can LAOS do for you?

54 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Example 1: flexibility index between concept C1 and rest of concepts in DM for automatic semantic linking in the DM or GM where C = card(DM) and A min = card( A min )

55 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Example 2: flexibility degree for selecting attributes from DM concept C1 for GM, considering the order

56 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Future developments LAOS

57 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Future developments LAOS Operators for each layer (partially done) Automatic transformations between layers for authoring simplification (partially done) Automatic concept linking (partially done) Verification work of the different layers

58 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 LAOS summary a five level AHS authoring model with a clear cut separation of the processing levels: 1.the domain model (DM), 2.the goal and constraint model (GM), 3.the user model (UM), 4.the adaptation model (AM) - more LAG following 5.the presentation model (PM).

59 AH&SW course Bucharest, Romania January 2007 Any questions?


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