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Dr. Ed Marshall Room: M220, RCS 1 4.I10 Green Chemistry Lecture 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Ed Marshall Room: M220, RCS 1 4.I10 Green Chemistry Lecture 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Ed Marshall Room: M220, RCS I10 Green Chemistry Lecture 1 Slide 1 Module 4I10: Green Chemistry Lecture 1: An Introduction to Green Chemistry Lecture 1: An Introduction to Green Chemistry Imperial College London

2 Lecture 1: Learning Objectives By the end of today's lecture you should: (i)be able to define what is meant by the term Green Chemistry; (ii)appreciate how Green Chemistry may be beneficial to industry; (iii)understand that Green Chemistry is not an easy subject. "We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used to create them." 4.I Albert Einstein ( ) Imperial College London

3 So what is Green Chemistry? Imagine you are at a party and you have to explain what Green Chemistry is to someone who isn't a chemist. What would words are you going to use to tell them? Scenario: Imperial College London 4.I10-1-3

4 Imperial College London Brown Chemistry Is this the public perception of the chemical industry? 4.I10-1-4

5 Brown Chemistry Imperial College London Cuyahoga River 1952 and 1969… Cuyahoga River 1952 and 1969… …major fires also happened in 1868 and I10-1-5

6 Brown Chemistry – the UK’s worst chemical accident Flixborough 1974 Imperial College London 28 fatalities 40 tonnes cyclohexane released in 1 minute (225 °C, 10 atm) 4.I10-1-6

7 Brown Chemistry – the world’s worst chemical accident Bhopal I Imperial College London

8 Brown Chemistry Is this reputation deserved? Imperial College London 4.I10-1-8

9 Imperial College London Why does the chemical industry need Green Chemistry? The Chemical Industry has responsibilities: to the environment to the public to shareholders As legislation becomes stricter and as petrochemical feedstocks are depleted, so green chemical processes will become more cost effective. 4.I10-1-9

10 Imperial College London Class exercise: Which is greener - Disposable or Cotton Nappies? In groups of 4, discuss whether it is better to use disposable nappies (diapers) or reusable cotton nappies. Results of Vote: In favour of disposable: In favour of cotton: Results of Vote: In favour of disposable: In favour of cotton: Far more importantly......what factors did you consider in your answer? 4.I

11 Imperial College London The answer In 2004 the UK Environment Agency concluded that there is… "no significant difference between the environmental impacts of either nappy system, although the life cycle stages are different" In 2004 the UK Environment Agency concluded that there is… "no significant difference between the environmental impacts of either nappy system, although the life cycle stages are different" 4.I

12 Disposable Nappies - Simplified System Outline Diagram Environmental Resources Energy Supply Environment (air, land and water) Other Production Inputs timber polymers acrylic acid NaOH packaging pulp and bleaching pulp and bleaching plastic components plastic components super absorbant polymer super absorbant polymer disposable nappy disposable nappy landfill electricity generation electricity generation retail recycle domestic use landfill incineration

13 Home Laundered Cotton Nappies - again, simplified Environmental Resources Energy Supply Environment (air, land and water) Other Production Inputs fertiliser pesticide cotton cultivation cotton cultivation cotton ginning cotton ginning cotton spinning cotton spinning cotton production and wet processing cotton production and wet processing cotton nappy other nappy construction materials other nappy construction materials packaging retail domestic use sewage treatment packaging disposal packaging disposal electricity generation electricity generation water detergent manufacture detergent manufacture liner manufacture liner manufacture

14 Imperial College London So what factors do we need to consider? 4.I transportation (fuels, emissions) transportation (fuels, emissions) waste and the environment waste and the environment energy Green Chemistry: a cradle to grave approach production process i.e. conditions, risks, hazards production process i.e. conditions, risks, hazards raw materials solvents other chemicals e.g. additives other chemicals e.g. additives

15 Imperial College London Green Chemistry: A reductionary approach 4.I Green Chemistry reduces… Green Chemistry is not anti-industry

16 Imperial College London Definitions of Green Chemistry “The reduction or elimination of the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products” Green Chemistry theory and Practice - Anastas and Warner “Green Chemistry underlies our commitment to potentially harmful technologies by developing alternative syntheses to prevent environmental pollution.” Green Chemistry is not anti-industry 4.I

17 Imperial College London Summary of Lecture 1 By the end of today's lecture you should: be able to define what is meant by the term Green Chemistry: appreciate how Green Chemistry may be beneficial to industry: understand that Green Chemistry is not an easy subject: Green Chemistry ultimately reduces cost and increases responsibility to the environment, the public and shareholders The reduction or elimination of the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products Green Chemistry is a cradle to grave approach 4.I

18 Imperial College London What we will cover in lectures 2-8 Lecture 2: Metrics Lecture 3: Catalysis Lecture 4: Green Solvents Lecture 5: Biofuels Lecture 6: Biomass Lecture 7: Biotechnology Lecture 8: Hazards 4.I

19 Imperial College London Finally, here is one part of last year’s exam question 4.I Green Chemistry is often said to be a 'cradle to grave' approach. Explain what this term means with specific reference to the industrial production of polyethylene. 5 marks


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