Presentation on theme: "A Scientific Way to Look at Going Green!"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Scientific Way to Look at Going Green! Life Cycle AssessmentA Scientific Way to Look atGoing Green!
2 What does it mean to be Green?? What is Sustainability?? Topics to discuss in class regards to sustainability: “Environmentally friendlySustainable products, Green product, Environmentally preferable, Biodegradable, Recyclable, Ozone friendly, Eco-design, Greenwashing”United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Sustainable Development definition :“… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
3 Sustainability Environmentally Friendly Sustainable Products Green productEnvironmentallyPreferableUnited Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Sustainable Development definition:“… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”BiodegradableRecyclableOzone friendlyEco-designGreenwashingwwblog.miragestudio7.com
4 What Can the Earth Handle? World Population StatisticsUN Population DivisionThe estimate of Earth’s Maximum supportable population is 13.4 billion.Looking at the population statistics, where are we headed?Renewable Energy Source Will Limit Our Growth!Population (2007)Annual GrowthRate(00 – 07)World6.7 Billion1.24%LDC5.4 Billion1.44%MDC1.2 Billion0.36%US301 Million1.03%Average per capita energy consumption is 3 kW/personUS 12 kW/personIndustrialized 7.5 kW/personDenmark 5.1 kW/personDeveloping 1kW/person
5 Being Green is Trendy . . . . . . . . . . . What Does Science Say? Industry is looking for ways to green their products and manufacturing processes.Individuals and Families are looking to green their homes and lifestyles.How can you tell if something really is green??What is currently happening to achieve this goal?Scientists perform a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
6 Life Cycle Assessment WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH LCA? Definition:“Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle”This establishes an environmental profile of the system!ISO = International Organization for StandardizationEnsures that an LCA is completedin a certain way.WHAT CAN BE DONEWITH LCA?Product or project development and improvementStrategic planningPublic policy makingMarketing and eco-declarations
7 Product Life CycleM, EM, EM, EM, EM, EM, ERawMaterialMaterialManufactureUse&RetirementTreatmentAcquisitionProcessing&AssemblyService&RecoveryDisposalWWWWWWreuseremanufactureclosed-looprecycleopen-looprecycleM, E = Material and Energy inputs to process and distributionW = Waste (gas, liquid, or solid) output from product, process, or distributionMaterial flow of product component
8 What Makes Up LCA Goal & Scope Definition What is the purpose of the LCA and who is the audience?Inventory Analysis (LCI)What is the function & functional unit?Where are the boundaries?What data do you need?What assumptions are you making?Are there any limitations?Impact Assessment (LCIA)What are the environmental, social, and economic affects?InterpretationWays to reduce environmental impacts.What conclusions can you draw from the study?What recommendations can be made?
9 Goal and Scope Wooden Pencil vs. Mechanical Pencil Goal = Compare 2 writing utensils for classroom use.Scope: Wooden Pencil (T = Transportation)Process Flow DiagramRetailerUseEnd of LifeLumber ForestLumber MillManufactureTTTTTTRubber(Landfill)SharpeningTGraphiteT(Electricity)PackagingTBrass
10 Scope: Mechanical Pencil PE = PolyethylenePP = PolypropyleneBoth materials are plastic polymers (large molecules) used to make many products.RetailerUseEnd of LifeOilPE / PPManufactureTTTTTTRubber(Landfill)TT = TransportationGraphiteTPackagingTSpring
11 Function & Functional Unit ExampleService provided by a systemWhat it does!Functional UnitGives the function a number valueAllows comparison between productsReference pointWooden Pencil vs. Mechanical PencilFunction = “Writing”Functional Unit = “1 meter of writing”
12 Items To Consider?? Inputs What is needed to make the substance! EnergyMaterialsLaborOutputsWhat comes out of the system!Products (electricity, materials, goods, services)WasteEmissionsCo-products
13 Data Collection Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Time-sensitive = past 5 yearsGeographical = does it match the location from the goalTechnology = best available technology for processRepresentativeness = reflects population of interestConsistency = matches the procedureReproducibility = another person could find itNever Forget Precision: The consistent reproducibility of a measurement Completeness: Covers all the areas outlined in the scope
14 LCA in Action: Think About It. Paper Plate vs LCA in Action: Think About It! Paper Plate vs. China (Plate You Wash & Reuse)What is the function?What is the functional unit?What materials & resources are used?What does it take to produce both?What are the impacts to the environment?Is there waste?Does washing the China produce waste?What types of data do you need?How do you knowwhich is better?
15 Data Analysis Environmental Impact Categories Global Warming PotentialGases in the atmosphere that absorb and emit radiationTrap heat from the sunWater vapor, CO2 , CH4 , ozone, NO2Abiotic DepletionConsumption of non-living resourcesHuman Toxicity PotentialValue that shows harms to humans from chemicalsLand UseHow much land is needed
16 Environmental Impact Categories Continued . . . . . EutrophicationIncrease in chemical nutrients containing nitrogen or phosphorusland or waterovergrowth of plantskilling organisms at bottom of waterWater UseMercuryAcidificationcaused by pollution from fuels & acid rainlow pHSmog (Winter or Summer)Energy UseSolid WasteOilAND MANY MORE!!
17 Evaluate 2 products using the LCA method and make change! Where Do We Go From Here?What is the purpose of all this data??Scientists can make recommendations of choices that are less impactfulScientists can analyze a particular impact and focus on a solutionIndustry & Individuals can take a closer look at how they can make a differenceClass ProjectEvaluate 2 products using the LCA method and make change!
18 Where Does Our “Stuff” Come From? Let’s check it out with“The Story of Stuff”
19 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Special ThanksDr. Michael LepechDepartment of Civil and Environmental EngineeringStanford University