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A Curious Compendium of Concept Maps for Teaching Media 1 Rick Instrell AMES Conference, 31 May 2014

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Presentation on theme: "A Curious Compendium of Concept Maps for Teaching Media 1 Rick Instrell AMES Conference, 31 May 2014"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Curious Compendium of Concept Maps for Teaching Media 1 Rick Instrell AMES Conference, 31 May 2014

2 2 Mind maps A mind map is a diagram with words, ideas, actions, etc. linked and arranged radially round a central keyword or idea e.g. spider map Good for brainstorming and first stage of planning media content etc. Mind maps tend to be unorganised and personal But we can help learners by use of mind map templates Examples: –brand/product mind maps –compass diagram

3 3 Brand/product mind maps BRAND/ PROD- UCT ProductsUSPsPriceAccess Reputa- tion Weak- nesses QualityService

4 4 Example of brand mind map Products: Big Mac, fries, … USPs: fast, cheap, child- friendly Price: cheap, promotions Access: 24/7, malls Reputa- tion: charities Weak- nesses: predict- able, unhealthy Quality: consistent Service: fast, child friendly

5 Compass diagram 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Purpose/ target audience Internal/ external opportu- nities /con- straints Media/ Genre Content Style Technical codes Cultural codes AIDA Research

6 6 What is a concept map? Graphical representation of knowledge in form of a network with nodes and links Nodes are concepts usually in the form of words Links have labels with words or symbols that specify the relationship between the concepts Linked nodes form meaningful statements (propositions) Arrow on link indicates direction of relationship (may be two way) A table also can be a good concept map Based on a finite set of structures that the brain uses to represent the world cognitively

7 7 Concept map of concept maps CONCEPT MAP Graphical representation of knowledge in the form of propositions Node = concept Can be word(s)/symbols Represent objects/ideas/events /states Link =Relationship Can be word(s)/symbols Structure Cluster Show as set or bulleted list Contrast Show as table ChainTree = Hierarchy Sequence Show as scale, numbered list, sequence of boxes Cycle = Helix Show as loop OUTCOMES Meaningful teaching & learning Metacognition Lifelong study skill Kind Tree =Taxonomy Show as tree diagram Part Tree = Partonomy Show as tree diagram AKO APOAFO AKO APO Key: AKO = is a kind of APO = is a part of AFO= is a feature of

8 8 Word fields Word Fields =Semantic Fields=Lexical Fields A word field is a set of relations between concepts or word(s) It is a conceptual structure e.g. –City/country is a word field unified a relation of opposite meaning –Hamlet/village/town/city is a word field organised on a scale of increasing size Alan Cruse has performed a systematic overview of word fields – his terminology has been simplified here

9 9 Clusters Word field with low degree of contrast e.g. –amble, stroll, saunter, … –brave, courageous, fearless, heroic, plucky, … –rap, tap, knock, slap, crack, bang, thump, … –odd, queer, strange, weird, alien, … Best represented as a set or as a bulleted list (next slide) In concept maps a cluster can be a set of features associated with a concept which has no apparent structure – best shown as bulleted list rap tap knock

10 10 Example: voice quality Voice quality tense/relaxed loud/soft high/low rough/smooth breathy/non-breathy vibrato/plain nasal/non-nasal Adapted from Speech, Music, Sound, T van Leeuwen (1999London: Palgrave Macmillan, p151 tense/relaxed loud/soft high/low rough/smooth breathy/non-breathy vibrato/plain nasal/non-nasal Voice quality AFO OR Key: AFO = is a feature of

11 11 Contrasts: opposites Complementaries: e.g. –dead: alive; true: false Converses: e.g. –buy:sell; parent: child Polar opposites: e.g. –long: short; high: low; hot: cold Reversives: e.g. –rise: fall; dress: undress; open: close Best shown as a table with features of each opposite listed underneath

12 Example: conceptions of media 12 ModelMarket modelPublic service model ConceptionPrivate companies selling productsPublic resources serving the public Main PurposeProfit for owners & shareholders Active citizenship via information, education & social integration AudienceConsumersCitizens ServiceEntertainment, adsInformation & education about the world Innovation Innovation threatens profitable standardised formats Innovation way of engaging audiences Diversity Strategy for reaching niche & upmarket audiences Represents range of public’s view and tastes Public interestWhatever is popular Diverse, substantial, innovative content even if not always popular RegulationPerceived as interferenceProtecting public interest Performance criteria ProfitServing public interest ExampleSkyBBC Adapted from The Business of Media, D Croteau and W Hovnes (2001) Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, p37.The Business of Media Q. Are Sky and BBC really polar opposites? What about ITV, C4, Five?

13 13 Concepts and conceptions Scholars may agree over the usefulness of concepts such as ‘media’, ‘institution’, ‘audience’ and society However they may have different conceptions of these concepts Concepts unify a field of study but rival conceptions divide it Different conceptions of a concept can be most economically shown in a contrast table rather than a diagram i.e. a conception map

14 14 Example: sociological theories ConceptionMarxism/Conflict theoryFunctionalismSymbolic Interactionism View of Society Society is a social arena in which diverse groups with conflicting values and interests compete for scarce resources: wealth, power, and prestige. Society is a social system made up of interdependent parts, all of which must fulfil certain functions to operate properly. Society is like a stage where people define and redefine meaning as they interact with one another. Major Concepts and Ideas Economic base; superstructure; social class; class consciousness; vested interests; alienation; power; coercion; domination; negotiation. Organic analogy; manifest and latent functions; equilibrium; dysfunctions. Meaningful symbols; definition of the situation; looking-glass self; symbolic interaction; dramaturgical analysis; labelling. View of Media Media are tools of power that help maintain the status quo, cultivate consumers, and disseminate info that serves interests of wealthy and powerful people/corporations that own/control the media. Media perform many social functions: dissemination of information/ideas; provision of instantaneous world-wide communication. Media provide most effective methods of defining the situation to promote products through ads; politicians stage media events to promote agendas and careers; activist organizations use websites. Strengths Macrolevel analyses; social stratification; inequality. Macrolevel analyses; structure; institutions. Microlevel analyses; face-to- face interaction; day-to-day activities. WeaknessesMicrolevel analyses; ignores cooperation. Microlevel analyses; ignores conflict and diversity. Macrolevel analyses; ignores structure and larger social forces.

15 15 Chains Chains: series of terms that can be placed on a line e.g. –Stages in time e.g. birth, life, death; nursery, primary, secondary; events as source, path, goal –Sequences in space e.g. elbow, forearm, wrist, hand; core, mantle, crust –Measures e.g. bit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte, terabyte –Ranks e.g. teacher, principal teacher, depute head, head –Cycles (or helices): e.g. spring, summer, autumn, winter Best represented as a linear sequence or a cycle

16 16 Example: 4-act structure StageFilm: (Prologue) Act 1: Setup Turning point Act 2: Complicating action Turning point Act 3: Development Turning point Act 4: Climax (Epilogue) Adapted from Storytelling in the New Hollywood, K Thompson (1999) Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Time

17 17 Example: The Hero’s Journey Adapted from The Hero with a Thousand Faces, J Campbell (1949) Novato, CA: New World Library. The Hero(ine)’s Journey is used by scriptwriters as a template for many mainstream Hollywood movies.

18 18 Trees (or hierarchies) Kind tree (taxonomy) – categorisation using superordinate and subordinate categories Part-tree (partonomy) – breaking a whole into its main parts and sub-parts How you categorise or partition depends on educational context (subject, age, stage)

19 19 Part-tree (partonomy) BODY LimbsTrunkHead ArmLegFaceHair APO AKOAPO Bold words are basic level categories: words we most commonly use and the first we learn Note that this would be better represented by a labelled diagram of a human body. Ears ShoulderUpper ArmElbow APO Key: APO = a part of

20 20 Problem of tree ‘spread’ BODY LimbsTrunkHead ArmLegFaceHair APO At the foot of a tree use a ‘ladder’ Ears APO Shoulder Upper Arm Elbow Forearm Wrist Hand APO Thigh Knee Shin Calf Ankle Foot Key: APO = is a part of

21 Example: print ad elements headline copy slogan (strapline) images (photographs, pack shot of product, graphics) logo

22 22 Kind-tree (taxonomy) TABLEWARE CutleryCrockeryTable linen ForkKnifeSpoonCupPlateBowlNapkinTable cloth TeaspoonSoupspoonTablespoon AKO Bold words are basic level categories: words we most commonly use and the first we learn Key: AKO = is a kind of

23 Example: differential decoding 23 AUDIENCE DECODINGS Dominant decoding = preferred reading - agrees with intended preferred meanings Oppositional decoding - understands pre- ferred meanings but disagrees with them Negotiated decoding - agrees with some of preferred meanings & disagrees with others Aberrant decoding - misunderstands preferred meaning(s) because of different cultural back- ground/lack of knowledge AKO Uncritical acceptance of Muller Little Stars ad’s message Understandiing the ad’s message about health properties of yoghurt but thinking that its sweet taste will not be beneficial Viewing ad as promoting unhealthy addictive food as well as consumerist ideology Child viewing ad and thinking product comes straight from the field AEO Key: AKO = is a kind of AEO = is an example of

24 24 Constrained concept maps Can have many links so it is a good idea to apply Occam’s razor (parsimony) to the types of link: e.g. restrict links to around 5 types: –is a kind of (AKO) –is part of (APO) –is a feature of (AFO) –is an example of (AEO) –arrowed line with no link word (leads to) Parsimony works well in subjects such as computing but is less easy in media studies and other social sciences

25 25 Planning constrained maps AKO: for each concept think of superordinate and subordinate categories APO: for each concept think of superordinate and subordinate parts AFO: what are the key features that pupils need to know? AEO: think of real world example in pupils’ experience Questions: should you place a kind-tree and a part-tree on the same map? Questions: might a part-tree be better represented as a labelled image?

26 26 Applications of concept maps Clarification of one’s own conceptual understanding Unifying departmental approaches Advanced organisers and summaries Better for poor readers Diagnosis of conceptual misunderstandings Encourages deep meaningful learning rather than surface rote learning Encourages students to create and reflect on their own maps Shows how concepts are stored in experts’ minds Can use graphics as well as words and colour to help understanding on concept map Encourages metacognition and lifelong learning

27 Concept map integrating KAs 27 MEDIA INSTITUTIONS with purposes AUDIENCE differential decoders with needs SOCIETY Institutions, relationships & culture (lived cultures + texts) TEXTS Categories Language Narrative Representations construct mode of address & preferred meanings feedback create/ encode used by/ decoded by applying cultural knowledge influences UGC: user-generated content MONEY TECHNOLOGY

28 INSTITUTION creative personnel, deadlines, resources financial controllers (budget, income from sales, subscription, advertising; license fee) ownership & purposes (commercial, public service, alternative) controls (legal & regulatory compliance, market) AUDIENCE target audience needs, uses & pleasure differential decoders (personality, gender, age, class, ethnicity, religion, nationality, taste, cultural capital) producers TEXTS CATEGORIES: purpose, medium, form, genre, tone, style. … LANGUAGE: technical/cultural codes & their motivations & interactions e.g. anchorage. NARRATIVE: content organisation; narrative structure & narrative codes REPRESENTATIONS: stereotypes & non-stereotypes; ; hegemony; dominant/oppositional ideologies SOCIETY institutions, relationships & culture (lived culture + texts) at specific times in specific places used by/decoded by applying cultural knowledge influences TECHNOLOGY technologies of production, distribution & consumption MEANING CAPITAL create/encode Construct: Mode of address Preferred meanings create UGC feedback Time Circuit of meaning expanded

29 29 Bibliography Bordwell, D. (1989) Making Meaning: Inference Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Chapter 5 contains an accessible summary of Cruse’s ideas. Cruse, D. A. (1986) Lexical Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Key text on semantic fields but has a lot of difficult terminology. Cruse, D. A. (2000) Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. University level linguistics text book. Finch, J. (2006) Inspiration in the Classroom: Curriculum-based Activity Plans. Beaverton, Or: Inspiration Software Inc. Purchase from McQuail, D. & Windahl, S. (1993) Communication Models for the Study of Mass Communication (2 nd edition). London: Routledge. Novak, J. & Gowin, D. B. (1984) Learning How to Learn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Key text on concept mapping. Novak, J. (1998) Learning, Creating and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in School and Corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Novak, J. D. & Cañas, A. J. (2006) The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct Them. Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition. Available at: df df

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