4Characteristics of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that makes it hard to:1. Tell the difference between what is real and not real2. Think clearly3. Have normal emotional responses4. Act normally in social situationsSchizophrenia is a complex illness. Mental health experts are not sure what causes it. However, genes may play a role
5It usually begins in the teen years or young adulthood, but it may begin later in life. Schizophrenia affects both men and women equally.It tends to begin later in women, and is more mild.
6People with any type of schizophrenia may have trouble keeping friends and working. They may also have problems with anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts or behaviors.Symptoms may include:1. Irritable or tense feelings2. Trouble concentrating3. Trouble sleepingAs the illness continues, you may have problems with thinking, emotions, and behavior, including:
7Bizarre behaviorsHearing or seeing things that are not there (hallucinations)IsolationLack of emotion (flat affect)Problems paying attentionThoughts that "jump" between different topics (“loose associations”)
8Types of Schizophrenia Paranoid schizophreniaSymptoms may include:AnxietyAnger or arguingFalse beliefs that others are trying to harm you or your loved ones
9Disorganized schizophrenia symptoms may include:Childlike behaviorProblems thinking and explaining your ideas clearlyShowing little emotion
10Catatonic schizophrenia symptoms may include:Grimacing or other odd expressions on the faceLack of activityRigid muscles and postureNot responding much to other people
11Undifferentiated schizophrenia may include symptoms of more than one other type of schizophrenia.There are no medical tests to diagnose schizophrenia.A psychiatrist would need to examine a person to make the diagnosis.The diagnosis would be made based on an interview of you and your family members.
12How is it treated?A person may need to stay in the hospital for safety reasons.MEDICATIONSAntipsychotic medications are the most effective treatment for schizophrenia.They change the balance of chemicals in the brain and can help control symptoms.These medications are usually helpful, but they can cause side effects.
17Having schizophrenia increases your risk for: Developing a problem with alcohol or drugsUsing alcohol or other drugs increases the chances your symptoms will return.People with schizophrenia may become physically sick, because of an inactive lifestyle and side effects from medication.A physical illness may not be detected because of poor access to medical careSuicide
19Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, as well as fluctuations in energy and activity levels.During these abnormal shifts, the patient commonly finds it difficult to complete everyday tasks.Bipolar disorder is also known as manic-depressive illness.Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness that can destroy relationships, undermine career prospects, and seriously affect academic performance.These emotional shifts can become so overwhelming that individuals may choose suicide.
20Bipolar disorder is a condition in which people go back and forth between periods of a very good or irritable mood and depression.The "mood swings" between mania and depression can be very quick.Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally.It usually starts between agesThe exact cause is unknown, but it occurs more often in relatives of people with bipolar disorder.
21Shifting from Mania to Depression Mania - this is the period of euphoria, restlessness, energy, recklessness, and much talking.Depression - this is the opposite mood extreme of mania.The patient feels sad, may cry a lot, has a sense of being worthless, energy levels are extremely low, there is loss of pleasure, and sleep problems
22What are the causes of bipolar disorder? GeneticsBiological traits - experts say that patients with bipolar disorder often have physical changes that occurred in their brains.Brain-chemical imbalanceHormonal problemsEnvironmental factors - abuse, mental stress, a "significant loss", or some other traumatic event may contribute towards bipolar disorder
23What are the signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder? A feeling of being on top of the world, exhilaration or euphoriaOver-self-confidence, an inflated sense of self-esteemThe patient's judgment may be impairedThe patient talks a lot, and very rapidlyMissing work or school a lotUnderperforming at work or schoolA feeling of gloom, blackness, despair, and hopelessnessExtreme sadnessWeight loss or weight gainExtreme tiredness, fatigue, listlessness
24Types of bipolar disorder: People with bipolar disorder type I have had at least one manic episode and periods of major depression.In the past, bipolar disorder type I was called manic depression.People with bipolar disorder type II have never had full mania.Instead they experience periods of high energy levels and impulsiveness that are not as extreme as mania (called hypomania). These periods alternate with episodes of depression
25The following may trigger a manic episode in people with bipolar disorder: Life changes such as childbirthMedications such as antidepressants or steroidsPeriods of sleeplessnessRecreational drug useThe depressed phase of both types of bipolar disorder includes the following symptoms:Daily low mood or sadnessDifficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
26Fatigue or lack of energy Feeling worthless, hopeless, or guilty Eating problemsLoss of appetite and weight lossOvereating and weight gainFatigue or lack of energyFeeling worthless, hopeless, or guiltyLoss of pleasure in activities once enjoyedLoss of self-esteemThoughts of death and suicideTrouble getting to sleep or sleeping too muchPulling away from friends or activities that were once enjoyed
27There is a high risk of suicide with bipolar disorder. Patients may abuse alcohol or other substances, which can make the symptoms and suicide risk worse.A summer in the cage