Presentation on theme: "Bipolar Disorder Bailey Roy. Definition Bipolar disorder causes extreme shifts in mood, energy, thinking, and behavior–from the highs of mania on one."— Presentation transcript:
Definition Bipolar disorder causes extreme shifts in mood, energy, thinking, and behavior–from the highs of mania on one extreme, to the lows of depression on the other. More than just a general good or bad mood, the cycles of bipolar disorder last much longer. Unlike ordinary mood swings, the mood changes of bipolar disorder are so intense that they interfere with the individuals ability to function in society and their daily life.
Description Commonly known as: Bipolar affective disorder, manic-depressive disorder and manic depression. Individuals commonly experience manic episodes as well as depressive episodes, in some cases they will experience a mixed state in which both mania and depressive symptoms are present. Episodes last typically a few days to several months and can be intercepted with periods of “normal moods”.
Symptoms At the lower levels of mania such as, hypomania, individuals may seem energetic & excitable, and may in fact be highly productive. At a higher level, individuals begin to behave erratically and impulsively, often they make poor decisions due to unrealistic ideas, and may have great difficulty with sleep. At the highest level, individuals may experience extremely distorted beliefs about the world known as psychosis. Hallucinations have also been reported.
What It Looks like Children often show signs of: -Extreme irritability -Aggressive behavior -Separation anxiety -Rages & Explosive behavior -Hyperactivity Adult symptoms include, but not limited to: -Feeling unusually “high” or optimistic -Racing thoughts & Rapid talking -Acting Recklessly without thinking -Sleeping very little, but very energetic -Highly Distractible, difficulty concentrating
Etiology Episodes of mania and depression typically are reoccurring across the life span. Between episodes, most people are free of symptoms, but as many as one-third of people experience some residual symptoms. A small percentage experiences chronic, unremitting symptoms. However, some people never develop severe mania but instead experience mild episodes of hypomania that alternate with depression. When four or more episodes have occurred within a 12-month period, the individual is said to have rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. Some individuals experience multiple episodes which can occur within a single week, and in some cases even a single day. Rapid cycling tends to develop later in the course of illness and is more common among women.
Causes There is no single, proven cause for bipolar disorder, as follows are some theories that I agree with: Research suggests that it is the result of abnormalities in how some nerve cells in the brain function and communicate. Researchers also do believe that there is a definite genetic link (family history) in which there is a higher risk for people who have a parent or full sibling with bipolar disorder. The environment that the individual grew up in, or is currently living in, may be related. Stress, abuse, significant loss or other traumatic experiences may play a role in the severity and the diagnosis of the disorder. Mental illnesses are caused by a combination of several factors working together. In bipolar disorder, these factors are usually divided into biological and psychological causes.
Treatment To date, there is no cure for bipolar disorder. Although proper treatment helps most people gain better control of their mood swings and other related symptoms.
Mood stabilizing medications are usually the first choice to treat bipolar disorder. Lithium: Usually very effective in controlling symptoms of mania, as well as preventing the reoccurrence of manic and depressive episodes. Valproic acid: (Depakote) approved by the FDA in 1995 for treating mania, is a popular alternative to lithium. It is generally as effective for treating symptoms. More recently, the anticonvulsant, Lamotrigine (Lamictal) received FDA approval and has been prescribed. Other anticonvulsant medications, include: Gabapentin Topiramate and Oxcarbazepine
“Talk" therapy, is an effective treatment if coupled with prescribed medication. Individuals have a chance to discuss feelings, thoughts, and behaviors that cause them problems and stress. It is used to help understand, and hopefully master any problems that hurt the ability to function well in their daily life and career. It also encourages them to stay on medication and can help maintain a positive self-image. Behavioral therapy: Focuses on behaviors that decrease stress. Cognitive therapy: This approach involves learning to identify and modify the patterns of thinking that accompany mood shifts. Interpersonal therapy: Involves relationships and aims to reduce strains that the illness may place upon them Social rhythm therapy: Develop and maintain daily routines.