Presentation on theme: " Adverbs are formed by adding ē to the base of a 1 st or 2 nd declension adjective (we only know 1 st and 2 nd declension adjectives at this point!)."— Presentation transcript:
Adverbs are formed by adding ē to the base of a 1 st or 2 nd declension adjective (we only know 1 st and 2 nd declension adjectives at this point!). How do you form the base of the adjective? Simply remove the –us ending from the 1 st part of the adjective as given in the book.
Future tense for 3 rd conjugation verbs is formed by adding ē to the present stem of the verb, and then the personal endings. REMEMBER – the ē will become a short e when the –t or –nt ending is added. EXCEPTION – 1 st person singular will end in –am.
These 2 groups of verbs form future tense the same way as 3 rd conjugation verbs. NOTE: There is ONE difference. › There is an i at the end of the stem in every place of the conjugation, before the ē/e and the personal ending.
Is formed the same way in ALL conjugations! › Formed by adding the –ba- “helping syllable” between the stem and the personal endings. (bam, bās, bat, bāmus, bātis, bant) › NOTE: 2 nd conjugation has a ē stem vowel, so, of course, will have that before the –ba- helping syllable. 3 rd and 4 th conjugation verbs add a ē between stem and personal endings (- ēbam, ēbās, etc.)
Perfect Tense – amabo › Simple Past - I loved › Present perfect – I have loved › Emphatic past – I did love Imperfect – amabam › Progressive past – I was loving › Customary past – I used to love, I would love › Repeated past – I kept on loving Simple past will also work for imperfect
The subject is being acted upon in this voice. › We previously only knew the active voice, which shows that the subject is doing the action. Present, imperfect and future tenses of the passive voice are formed like the active voice, but they use a different set of endings.
-r-mur -ris-mini -tur-ntur
Transitive verbs have a direct object. The action of those verbs ‘transfers’ to the D.O. Ex: Equum amo. Intransitive verbs do not have a D.O. Many intransitive verbs are followed by a prepositional phrase. Ex: In aquam ambulo. For the most part, only transitive verbs work in the passive voice.
If the subject is being acted upon in a passive voice sentence, who is doing the ‘acting’? That would be the agent, shown by a noun with an ablative ending. The football is being thrown by the quarterback. Who is throwing the football? The quarterback is throwing the football (hey, that’s a sentence in the active voice!). Typically, the D.O. in an active voice sentence becomes the agent in a passive voice sentence.
Latin UseEnglish No prep. Meansby, with, by means of Cum Accompanimentwith ā/abAgentby