Presentation on theme: "Unit IV Review Chapters XVII - XXI. Vocabulary Be sure you know the vocabulary words from this unit well! There will be a vocabulary quiz in the next."— Presentation transcript:
Vocabulary Be sure you know the vocabulary words from this unit well! There will be a vocabulary quiz in the next couple of weeks! Pay attention to the declension and conjugation of each word. As you learn new words, be careful to learn the parts which are given in the vocabulary section. These parts help you understand which conjugation or declension a word belongs to! What are the 2 parts of nouns given? What are the 4 parts of verbs given?
Finding the stems of ‘Sum’ How do we find stems of verbs? present stem – perfect stem – Sum is an irregular verb in the present tense. What does that mean? Sum also has irregular principal parts sum, esse, fui, futurus
Stems of the ‘to be’ word The present stem is es- or s- Conjugate the present tense of sum The future stem is er- Conjugate the future tense of sum The perfect stem is fu- Conjugate the perfect tense of sum
The Infinitive Form Being a ‘verbal noun’, the infinitive form of the verb can be used as a noun. It is always neuter and singular! The infinitive form of the verb (the 2 nd principal part) can be used as the subject of a sentence. The infinitive form can be used as the object of a sentence.
3 rd Conjugation The infinitive ends in –ere Defined by the short e stem vowel This short e is seen only in the infinitive and the singular imperative – everywhere else it is weakened or absorbed by the endings and becomes an i (exceptions – 1 st person singular omits ‘i’ and 3 rd person plural has a ‘u’). ducoducimus ducisducitis ducitducunt
3 rd Conjugation –io verbs 3 rd conjugation verbs that end in –io in the 1 st person singular, retain the short -i- in all places in the conjugation, as well as in the plural imperative (accipite) Both types of 3 rd conjugation verbs form the perfect tense regularly (remove the –i ending from the 3 rd principal part and add the perfect personal endings
Conjugating a 3 rd –io verb capiocapimus capiscapitis capitcapiunt Notice – there is an ‘i’ before EVERY ending in the conjugation (regular 3 rd conjugation verbs do not have the –i- in 1 st person singular and have a –u- in 3 rd person plural.
4 th Conjugation Verbs 4 th conjugation verbs have a stem vowel of ‘i’. They are conjugated EXACTLY like 3 rd ‘io’ verbs! They have an ‘i’ in every form veniovenimus venisvenitis venitveniunt
Stem Vowels of Each Conjugation 1 st – ā 2 nd – ē 3 rd – e 4 th – ī Write on white board or piece of paper where you ‘find’ the stem vowel.
Apposition Opposition means ‘standing against’ Apposition means ‘standing beside’ Words in APPOSITION ‘stand beside’ each other to add more information: Mrs. Capps, my 7 th grade teacher….. I had a true friend, Marcus We gave money to the sailors, our friends Pippa, my puppy, is lots of fun!
Asking Questions To ask a question that requires a yes or no answer, add – ne to the end of the first word (don’t use a word with 2 short syllables at the end, substitute another word!). If you expect a yes for the answer, begin the sentence with the word nonne. Or, begin the sentence with an interrogative adverb or pronoun, such as quis or quid.
Typical Word Order Subject begins sentence (unless there is not a written subject – be sure to verify that the noun you think might be the subject IS the subject (check verb ending and noun case ending!) The Predicate follows the subject. Generally, the verb is last. Very typical, but NOT strict!!! Subject, adjective, (genitive, appositive), then predicate - ablative, dative, accusative, adverb, verb