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Macromolecules Biology CP
Macromolecules Are BIG molecules! Building blocks of cellsSmall monomers combine to form a polymer All contain C, H, O
4 Types of Macromolecules1. Proteins 2. Carbohydrates 3. Lipids 4. Nucleic Acids *All are organic – so all contain Carbon
Caloric Value Energy is stored in the bondsProteins, carbs, lipids - different structures so different caloric values Lipids – highest caloric value Proteins and Carbs – same value
Proteins Functions - as enzymes, transport of material, self-defense, body structure
Proteins Monomer = amino acids Contains C, H, O, and NAre millions of different kinds
Lipid Base “Unit” Does not have a “true” monomerTriglyceride = 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol All lipids are “hydrophobic” (nonpolar)
Lipids Fats and oils – Saturated - solid at room temperatureUnsaturated – liquid Lipid examples: steroids, waxes, cholesterol
Lipids - Functions Long term energy storage Cushions internal organsInsulation for body against temperature extremes Important in hormones and vitamins
Carbohydrates monomer = monosaccharide or “simple sugar”Forms disaccharides and polysaccharides = polymers Forms long chains
Carbohydrates Important source of fiber for animals. Most fiber is cellulose Energy is released when bonds are broken; is the main source of energy Excess carbs are converted to fats
Starch and Glycogen Plants store energy as starchAnimals store energy as glycogen in the liver and muscles
Order macromolecules are burned in the bodyCarbs first Lipids second Proteins third
Nucleic Acids Monomer = nucleotide Polymer = DNA or RNAStore and transmit the genetic material
Nucleotide (monomer) of DNA and RNA5-carbon sugar + a phosphate + a nitrogenous base Information in DNA is used to make proteins
Which is DNA? Which is RNA?
KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.
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The student is expected to: 9A compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and.
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Organic Compounds Compounds containing carbon that make up living things.
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