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Macromolecules Biology CP. Macromolecules Are BIG molecules! Building blocks of cells Small monomers combine to form a polymer All contain C, H, O.

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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules Biology CP. Macromolecules Are BIG molecules! Building blocks of cells Small monomers combine to form a polymer All contain C, H, O."— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules Biology CP

2 Macromolecules Are BIG molecules! Building blocks of cells Small monomers combine to form a polymer All contain C, H, O

3 4 Types of Macromolecules 1. Proteins 2. Carbohydrates 3. Lipids 4. Nucleic Acids *All are organic – so all contain Carbon

4 Caloric Value Energy is stored in the bonds Proteins, carbs, lipids - different structures so different caloric values Lipids – highest caloric value Proteins and Carbs – same value

5 Proteins Functions - as enzymes, transport of material, self-defense, body structure

6 Proteins Monomer = amino acids Contains C, H, O, and N Are millions of different kinds

7 Lipid Base “Unit” Does not have a “true” monomer Triglyceride = 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol All lipids are “hydrophobic” (nonpolar)

8 Lipids Fats and oils – Saturated - solid at room temperature Unsaturated – liquid Lipid examples: steroids, waxes, cholesterol

9 Lipids - Functions Long term energy storage Cushions internal organs Insulation for body against temperature extremes Important in hormones and vitamins

10 Carbohydrates monomer = monosaccharide or “simple sugar” Forms disaccharides and polysaccharides = polymers Forms long chains

11 Carbohydrates Important source of fiber for animals. Most fiber is cellulose Energy is released when bonds are broken; is the main source of energy Excess carbs are converted to fats

12 Starch and Glycogen Plants store energy as starch Animals store energy as glycogen in the liver and muscles

13 Order macromolecules are burned in the body Carbs first Lipids second Proteins third

14 Nucleic Acids Monomer = nucleotide Polymer = DNA or RNA Store and transmit the genetic material

15 Nucleotide (monomer) of DNA and RNA 5-carbon sugar + a phosphate + a nitrogenous base Information in DNA is used to make proteins

16 Which is DNA? Which is RNA?


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