Presentation on theme: "The Era of Good Feelings Andrew Jackson. James Monroe: 1817-1825 5 th President of the United States Last of the Virginia Dynasty and last of the."— Presentation transcript:
James Monroe: 1817-1825 5 th President of the United States Last of the Virginia Dynasty and last of the “Founding Father” President Secretary of State / Secretary of War under Madison- War of 1812 Last President of the “First American Party System”- Federalists (Hamilton) and Republicans (Jefferson) Due to the lack of political “conflict” his presidency is known as the “Era of Good Feelings”
James Monroe To bring unity and stability to government, he chose people from all over (North & South, Republicans & Federalists) for his cabinet Sec. of State: John Quincy Adams Sec. of War: John C. Calhoun (War Hawk)
The AMERICAN SYSTEM AMERICAN SYSTEM: The program of government subsides favored by Henry Clay and his followers to promote American economic growth and protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competition Supported by Monroe & was a break from the Jeffersonian view of an agrarian nation, although Republicans began to see the need for government involvement in economic matters
Second Bank of the United States Was given a 20 year charter in 1816 The fear of a concentrated economic power, the Jeffersonian Republicans allowed the First Bank of the United States to expire in 1811 The re-charter of the bank demonstrated the importance and strength of commercial interests had grown to rival that of farmers, whose distrust for central banks persisted.
Diplomacy of John Q. Adams The diplomatic achievements during the Era of Good Feelings was the result of J.Q. Adams Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817 & Convention of 1818: Fixed the border between the US and Canada at the 49 th parallel and resolved the conflict over British claims to Oregon- agreed to jointly occupy it for 10 (but actually 20) years Transcontinental Treaty of 1819 (Adams-Onis): Spain agreed to cede Florida and drop all claims to the Louisiana Territory and Oregon and the US would relinquish claims on Texas and take responsibility of the $5 million in claims that US citizens had against Spain
Monroe Doctrine: 1823 Devised by J.Q. Adams The US was first country to recognize independence of Spain’s former colonies in Latin America Stated the Europeans had no right to colonize or other wise interfere in the affairs of America United States wanted to remain neutral of European affairs (as encouraged by G. Washington) Defining moment in American diplomatic history Stated any violation of this policy by European powers would be seen as hostile Translation: This is our playground and you can’t play on our monkey bars
The Panic of 1819 During the War of 1812 and Napoleonic Wars- American shipping was able to capitalize on the lack of British trading As Britain recovered, American foodstuffs declined and American farmers & shippers suffered Land sales ballooned and people bought on credit- when the 2 nd Bank of the United States forced banks to call in loans, default happened- the land owners blamed the bank- a sentiment that Andrew Jackson will use to his advantage
The Panic of 1819 Northern manufacturers were also suffering because of the re-emergence of the British- the laid off workers blamed the merchants and owners- Jackson will used that to his advantage KEY IDEA: In order to protect the northern merchants a tariff on imported goods was imposed (and increased in 1824 over Southern objections) that hurt southerners- they begin to question their place in a country in which their voice was not heard
John Quincy Adams Once again- Sec. of State = President
John Quincy Adams: 6th First time son of a president is elected President Which number president was his father? Who is the most recent father/son? Will Obama’s daughter(s) ever become President?
The Corrupt Bargain J.Q. Adams ran against Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Crawford Jackson won 42% of the popular vote versus Adams 32%. However, Jackson received 37% of the electoral votes and Adams got 32%. Since no one received a majority, the election was sent to the House.
The Corrupt Bargain With the election to be decided in the House, each state could cast one vote for president. Henry Clay dropped out and supported John Quincy Adams who was elected on the first vote. When Adams became president, he appointed Clay to be his Secretary of State. This led opponents to claim that a "corrupt bargain" had been made between the two of them. They both denied this. Clay even participated in a duel to prove his innocence in this matter.
J. Q. Adams John Quincy Adams served only one term (just like his father) as president. He supported internal improvements including the extension of the Cumberland Road. In 1828, the so- called "tariff of abominations" was passed. Its goal was to protect domestic manufacturing. It was strongly opposed in the South and led Vice President John C. Calhoun to argue again for the right of nullification - to have South Carolina nullify it by ruling it unconstitutional.
The American System John Quincy Adams sought to strengthen the economy and pay off national debt. Proponent of the “American System” The American System, originally called "The American Way", was an economic plan that played a prominent role in American policy during the first half of the 19th century. Rooted in the ideas of Alexander Hamilton, the plan "consisted of three mutually reinforcing parts: a tariff to protect and promote American industry; a national bank to foster commerce; and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other 'internal improvements' to develop profitable markets for agriculture.” Congressman Henry Clay was the plan's foremost proponent and the first to refer to it as the “American System”.
Internal Improvements The Louisville and Portland Canal around the Falls of the Ohio; the connection of the Great Lakes to the Ohio River system in Ohio and Indiana