Presentation on theme: "December 13, 2012 December 13, 2012 5 Best Practices in PM Leadership: 5 Best Practices in PM Leadership: Models, Frameworks, Tips & Techniques Facilitator:"— Presentation transcript:
December 13, 2012 December 13, Best Practices in PM Leadership: 5 Best Practices in PM Leadership: Models, Frameworks, Tips & Techniques Facilitator: Priscilla A. Glidden, Ph.D., P.M.P. 5 Best Practices in PM Leadership: 5 Best Practices in PM Leadership: Models, Frameworks, Tips & Techniques Facilitator: Priscilla A. Glidden, Ph.D., P.M.P. 1 PM CONNECT PM CONNECT
5 Best Practices in PM Leadership 2 Introduction What studies show generically about PM leadership Leadership, in general, is visible Leadership, in projects, represents the potential for organizational competitive advantage, especially in project-driven organizations, divisions, agencies….. Why? Objectives: to provide a rapid overview of 5 best practices & the models, frameworks or studies behind them a few examples of skills, behavior, templates or areas of expertise that illustrate some ways to implement them an overall “picture” at the end that makes sense to you At least one takeaway that will work for you in your environment A list of references that you will want to pick from & follow up with
Best Practice #1 3 The Annual Standish Group Study on Project Failures Description of the Standish Group Study (2011) For technology projects, only 37% achieved their initial objectives 42% were “challenged”; 21% failed outright Question: Which of the 10 was rated the #1 reason for project failure? Write down your answer; then we will vote! Description of the parallel UK Study :10 key reasons why projects fail 1 Delayed Scope/Requirements definition/signoff 6 Subcontractor delays in delivery 2 Poor/Missing Integration Management Plan 7 Customer delays in acceptance 3 Insufficient Test Assets 8 Poor estimating (time) 4 Failed tests, rework 9 Poor proposal/bid stage (cost) 5 Poor Scope Control during Execution10Failure to consult/record lessons learned
Best Practice #1: Reuse Lessons Learned 4 The #1 cause in these studies of project failure is: Missing Lessons Learned Documents in the Archives PM Failure to ensure Lessons Learned were consulted, reviewed with team, communicated to stakeholders & factored into Project Management Plan (esp Risk Docs) This important Best Practice in PM Leadership includes these parts: 1. Always take the time to create Lessons Learned 2. Do it as you move through the project lifecycle- include collection of items as an agenda item 3. Delegate the responsibility to a team member if you can
Best Practice #2: The PM develops a High-Performing Project Team 5 What exactly is a “High Performing” or “Excellent” Team & how does the PM leader create one? Average Teams vs. Excellent Teams External Locus of Responsibility Seek Individual Rewards Seek Individual Rewards Blame Others for Problems Blame Others for Problems Work as Individuals – hoard information Work as Individuals – hoard information May have low morale May have low morale Internal Locus of Responsibility Focus on Contributions to Team Focus on Contributions to Team Work to Solve Problems Work to Solve Problems Work as a Team – share information – teach each other Work as a Team – share information – teach each other Do have sustainable high morale Do have sustainable high morale
Best Practice #2 6 Excellent Teams, Productivity and Morale What is the driver for this Best Practice?
Best Practice #2: Situational Leadership Style Model 7 The only application of Leadership Theory that specifically addresses projects Matches Leader’s Style to the Team’s Development Level The familiar team development lifecycle Forming (S1) Storming (S2) Norming (S3) Performing (S4) Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3Stage 4 IS MESSY & focused in S1 on learning/doing Task, in S2 on becoming interdependent, in S3 for gaining Task/Relationship Responsibility, in S4 for self-management as a team
Best Practice #2: Situational Leadership Style Model (con’t) 8 Today’s Big Barrier: Distributed, not Co-located Teams Question: Which of these is the Central Office?
Best Practice #2: PM Leadership Style View 9 high Concern forHow will thisLet’s discuss how to… Relationshipsmake the boat (projectedgo faster? people-orientation ) Q2- HT/HRQ3- LT/HR These things will make the boat go faster. I trust you to make… lowQ1- HT/LRQ4- LT/LR high Projected Concern for Tasks low S1 S2 S3 S4
Summarizing Best Practice #2: the Situational Leadership Framework 10 PM Leader must diagnose what a team needs, then act in that style Each project team evolves through a uniquely paced lifecycle, but goes through each stage, reversing with changes in team, leadership or fortunes Leader interventions can maximize the pace of team development (subject to EQ and IQ of the assigned team members) Question- when is early PM intervention warranted? Nay-sayers impacting the team “stuck” members Issues arising out of matrixed roles or part-time assignments unresolved conflict among team members Team (or leader) over-focus on product, not process “delayed success” Failure to develop “interdependence” (the killer)
Best Practice #2: Facilitating Team Development – Tips & Tools PM-Facilitated Team Performance Agreements Mobilize Team discussion of items such as How do we want to handle Contingencies What method shall we use for Decision-making How should we communicate amongst ourselves, with stakeholders, etc? What (concretely) does quality look like here? What Positive Behaviors do we commit to? What Negative Behaviors should trigger PM or team action? How do we get (and give) feedback on our performance? If not decided by team, will evolve without commitment
Best Practice #2: Facilitating Team Development – Tips & Tools Develop self-processing capabilities in the team Example: use “Fist to Five” for team meeting reviews (HO) 3. Let the team know that “interdependence” is a requirement 4. Delegate “Best Practice” Team Functions 5. Early-on Reality Testing for Commitment Levels Not everyone can give the same amount to a specific project Team members with inability to fully commit should know how this will impact them (and the team should know too) 6. Consider encouraging team members to set an individual goal that aligns with the project (and share them) 7. Use Team-building Activities with regularity Examples: StrengthsFinder, egg drop
Best Practice #2: Facilitating Team Development – Tips & Tools Observe whether teams are actively developing over time; gauge their “stage” through observation of actual team behavior Example: Thelen et al. (1954), Levels of Team Learning & Knowledge Creation Level 1: Individuals focus on personal needs relative to figuring out the task and relationship aspects of the project/group, and may be in different frameworks entirely; some (task) information sharing occurs Level 2: Individuals jointly begin to focus on task; mainly planning and organization needed to do the task; information sharing and some knowledge sharing occurs Level 3: Group is focused on the task and knowledge transfer; episodes of knowledge creation may occur, as new methods for attacking scope, schedule or resources problems are advanced and engaged in; also, may see “new knowledge” arising from reality testing of ideas or see visualizing and identifying with project goals Level 4: Group is highly energized around specific episodes of knowledge creation; uses increasingly “common” language to “see” an issue or novel idea; context for discussion is new and extended
Best Practice #3: Facilitating Creativity & Innovation 14 The Scenario You have a project that requires some elements of creativity and innovation You wonder if you and your team can meet the requirements You need a framework for diagnosing your team’s potential for generating new knowledge, and for idneitfying what “gaps” may need to be filled
Best Practice #3: Facilitating Creativity & Innovation
Best Practice #3: Facilitating Team Creativity & Innovation – Tips & Tools 16 Some “good practice” ideas: 1. Use this Framework as a diagnostic team tool- understand your own role and that of the team members (it also works as a team-builder) 2. When possible, pick your own team with Sit Lead and Team Creativity models in mind 3. When you can’t, try to find ways to plug any “gaps” with “experts” who won’t steal the thunder of the team 4. Make Knowledge Creation a value-added deliverable for both products and processes, and reward the team, not the individual 5. Use boundary objects freely (Best Practice #4)
Best Practice #3: Facilitating Team Creativity & Innovation – Tips & Tools 17 Some “good practice” ideas (con’t): 6. Facilitating is hard-- do an assessment of your facilitation skills; then teach others in order to expedite their development (& your ability to delegate) “I’ve learned that, if nothing else, everyone on the team will be on the same page, and that can save lots of time and money, & improve customer satisfaction.” (Agile/Scrum Sponsor) 7. Model “facilitation skills” in other PM arenas, such as in “reaching agreement” with management & stakeholders Examples: Tsongas, Kilman study, “if –then”, “valuable for you….cheap for me”, 5-stages study 7.
Best Practice #3 (con’t): Framework for Escalating Team Engagement in Innovation 18 8. Shift the Paradigm: PM Control over the Outcome vs. over its Implementation Process ) 8. Shift the Paradigm: PM Control over the Outcome vs. over its Implementation Process (“Is high control necessary over both or just one?” ) low Manager & Process High LowTeam & Implementation ProcessHigh
Best Practice #3: Facilitating Team Creativity & Innovation – Tips & Tools (con’t) 19 Stage One “You will pursue this piece of the overall work on your own, and come back to me with something to demonstrate or decide; then I’ll give direction on how specifically you will implement; when implemented, come back and we will discuss next phase.” (italicized portion applies only if appropriate) Stage Two “You will pursue this piece of overall work on your own; come back to me with alternatives – plus your own recommendation-- for implementation; we’ll decide together which alternative to pursue, and then I’ll assign the next piece of work.” Stage Three “You will pursue the overall work, coming back to me with a detailed plan for the whole thing; after you inform me what you intend to do, I’ll give my input and we’ll discuss and decide.” Stage Four (a) “You do the work; just inform me of the final outcome”, or (b) “You do the work – no need to follow up with me.” 9. Use the 4 Stages of Team Engagement in Decision-Making
Best Practice #3: Facilitating Team Creativity & Innovation – Tips & Tools (con’t) 20 Set the engagement level to the maturity level of the team Explain the context and consequences of success or failure Give “clues” as to what behaviors you want Be specific about resources, including your own time Set up a review system to track progress (so your “outcome” doesn’t go off the tracks) – you may know this is common sense, but they may not Start doing this with a potential “win” 10. Rules for Team Engagement
Best Practice #3: Facilitating Team Creativity & Innovation – Tips & Tools (con’t) 21 Also note that: You and team members should determine You and team members should determine : A due date for the outcome of the decision-making What level of authority (Prior Slide, #9, Stage 1-4) has been delegated What priority the issue or result should be assigned Who the contact person is, or when you will meet again about progress What “must have’s” you need to have What to do if something unexpected happens
Best Practice #4: Focus on Key Objectives & Use Boundary Objects to Stay on Course 22 Define Key Objectives, then revisit the “boat” and reinforce them with varied visual and spoken boundary objects that keep everyone focused on them, and not on other things. Definition of Boundary Objects Where to use in Status Reviews, Customer and Team Meetings inTeam-Building Sessions on projects with Product or Process creativity & innovation opportunities or requirements (e.g., R&D, new product development projects) Speeches/Presentations/Interviews in day-to-day communications Levels of Project Uncertainty require different types of leadership and stakeholder management (discussion) Variation Foreseen Uncertainty Unforeseen Uncertainty ….Chaos!
Best Practice #4: Focus on Key Objectives & Use Boundary Objects to Stay on Course 23 Generic Contexts for B.O.’s in Meetings/Gatherings Agendas Project Kickoff/Launch presentations or themed-events White Boarding, Parking Lots End-of-project team meeting “Fist-2-Five” feedback ( HO) Purposes- Problem-solving & Decision-Making; NPD/R&D; Development; Education & Training Models, Causal Maps, Root Cause Analysis Diagrams, Mindmaps, Frameworks, Experiments & DOEs Drawings, Prototypes, Photographs Exercises, Case Studies, Research & Survey Reports Expert Opinions “T-Shirts & Mugs” Written or Verbalized “Vision Statements” Visuals of any kind that can be understood by all
Best Practice #4: Use Boundary Objects to Stay on Course (con’t) 24 Project Management-inspired B.O.’s 1. Scope/Requirements/Specs 2. Risk – a framework; Risk-tracking docs 3. Schedule/SPI; EV/CPI – performance measurements; “A3’s” – performance measurement & information format 4. Checklists 5. Other Quality Tools for Analysis and Decision-making 6. Lessons Learned 7. Other
Best Practice #5: Align Fact-based & Inner Voice to Avoid Burnout 25 Townsend: Leadership Beyond Reason (also Boundaries) Brief Exercise on Alignment Kahnemann: Thinking, Fast & Slow System 1 vs. System 2 Thinking Styles The Perils of counting “sunk cost” Anchors Confirmation Bias in Group Decisions Reading List with 45 other Contemporary Articles (short!) full of useful boundary objects & many more tips, tools & techniques – access through DropBox for information/self-testing on questionnaires for Situational Leadership Style & Facilitating Creativity & Innovation-type Teams.
26 Reading List for many more Boundary Objects, Tips, Tools & Techniques
Brain-Based Behavioral Biases under Risk Conditions 27 System 1 vs. System 2 Thinking Prospect Theory Confirmation Bias Groupthink- False Consensus Effect Anchors Other
….and then there are customers 28 Customers buy “solutions in a bundle of benefits” (not products); these solutions carry a certain value Value (customer’s perspective) is the net of Benefits minus Costs Costs include acquiring and consuming your solution, which means costs are both monetary and non-monetary Value is dynamic, framed on customer expectations of benefits minus costs, and shaped by experience and messages received along the way No matter what marketplace any business is in today, competing on service is imperative Decisions made about the customer’s product/solution must be managed to demonstrate that the manager is always sensitive to the customer’s experience, and is making decisions that are value-creating decisions
More on Situational Leadership: Brain-Based Behavioral Biases under Conditions of Change and Stress 29 Origins of Stress Level 1 = Unconscious Incompetence Level 2 = Conscious Incompetence Level 3 = Conscious Competence Level 4 = Unconscious Competence Balancing Stress to avoid Burnout End of Part 2
More on Situational Leadership: Brain-Based Behavioral Biases under Conditions of Change and Stress 30 Risk Level 1 = Variation Level 2 = Foreseen Unknowns Level 3 = Unforeseen Unknowns Level 4 = Chaos Balancing Stress to avoid Burnout Back exercise End of Part 2