Presentation on theme: "The TCP/IP Model Internet Protocol Address. Defined By IANA [Internet Assigned Number Authority] in 1970. IP Address is a Logical Address and it."— Presentation transcript:
The TCP/IP Model
Internet Protocol Address. Defined By IANA [Internet Assigned Number Authority] in IP Address is a Logical Address and it is a unique address. Using IP address of a destination network a router can deliver A PACKET TO THE CORRECT NETWORK. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the IP address space allocations globally and delegates five regional Internet registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address blocks to local Internet registries (Internet service providers) and other entities.Internet Assigned Numbers Authorityregional Internet registrieslocal Internet registriesInternet service providers
IPV -4. Two Versions: IPV -6.
IP is an Internet protocol address. IP address is a 32 bits and four parts of 8 bit each.section called as a octect octect are usually represented in a decimal notation.and can represented a value range from a 0 to 255. IP address have a two parts Net ID:- Represent the network. host id :-represent the particular computer which is on that network. Used an IP layer of TCP/IP model
1] Private IP Address. 2] Public IP Address Private address range:- CLASS A : CLASS B : CLASS C :
Ip address have a 5 classess. 1] Class A:- Class A is used for a very large network. ex:- WWW Class A network uses the first octect of the IP address as the network identrifier. Range: N HH H
2] Class B:- Class B is used for a moderate network. Class B network uses the first two octect of IP address as the network identifier. Range: N N HH
3] class C:- Class c is used for a small network. Class c is used first three octect of IP address as the network identifier. Range : N NNH
4] Class D:- Class D is used for a broadcasting and a multicasting. Range: ] Class E:- Class E is reserved for a research purpose. Range:
The class 'A' subnet is used for special local addresses, most commonly the loopback address This address is used to test the local network interface device's functionality.network All network interface devices should respond to this address from the command line of the local host.network If you ping from the local host, you can be assured that the network hardware is functioning and that the network software is also functioning.
BROADCAST ADDRESS A broadcast address is an address where all host bits in the IP address are set to one (1).IP address This address is the last address in the range of addresses, and is the address whose host portion is set to all ones. All hosts are to accept and respond to the broadcast address. This makes special services possible.
Subnet-Mask is used to calculate which part of ip address is network part, and which part of IP Address is Host part. A Subnet mask is a 32-bit number that masks an IP address, and divides the IP address into network address and host address. Subnet Mask is made by setting network bits to all "1"s and setting host bits to all "0"s. Within a given network, two host addresses are reserved for special purpose. The "0" address is assigned a network address and "255" is assigned to a broadcast address, and they cannot be assigned to a host.
Each class address has its own default network mask:- Class A Class B Class C When coverted to binary the default network mask are represented like this:- Class A Class B Class C
Note Millions of class A addresses are wasted.
Many class B addresses are wasted. Note:
The number of addresses in class C is smaller than the needs of most organizations. Note:
Given the network address , find the class, the block, and the range of the addresses. The class is A because the first byte is between 1 and 126. The block has a netid of 17. The addresses range from to
Example 2 Given the network address , find the class, the block, and the range of the addresses. Solution The class is C because the first byte is between 192 and 223. The block has a netid of The addresses range from to
Example 3 Given the network address , find the class, the block, and the range of the addresses Solution The class is B because the first byte is between 128 and 191. The block has a netid of The addresses range from to
Example 4 Given the address , find the beginning address (network address/nw ID). Solution The default mask is , which means that only the first byte is preserved and the other 3 bytes are set to 0s. The network address is
Given the address , find the beginning address (network address). Solution:- The default mask is , which means that the first 2 bytes are preserved and the other 2 bytes are set to 0s. The network address is Example :5
Given the address , find the beginning address (network address). Example :5 Solution The default mask is , which means that the first 3 bytes are preserved and the last byte is set to 0. The network address is
The address space of IPv4 is 2 32 or 4,294,967,296. Note
Address size moved from 32-Bits (IPv4) To 128 –Bits (IPv6). IPv6 Is a unique Address. Ipv6 is an Hexadecimal format IPv6 is an 128-Bits /8 Octect / Per Octect 16 Bits.
The address space of IPv6 is or 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607, 431,770,000,000. Note
To make addresses more managable devided into 8 groups of 4 Hex characters Each. Ex:- 2001:0050:0000:0000:0000:0AB4:1E2B:98AA
Rule 2:- Drop Leading Zeros. 2001:50::AB4:1E2B:98AA Rule1:- Eliminate groups of consecutive Zeros. 2001:0050::0AB4:1E2B:98AA. IP v6 :- 2001:50::AB4:1E2B:98AA
Unicast :- One To One. Multicast :- One To Many. Anycast :- One To Closest
1] Link –Local Scope Address : Layer 2 Domain. Assigned automatically as an Ipv6 Host comes online. Similar to the address of Ipv4. Always begin with “FE80” First 64 Bits is :- FE80:0000:0000:0000. Last 64 Bits is :- 48 Bits MAC Address and 16 bits for “FFFE” Squeezed in the Middle.
2] Unique/Site-Local Scope Address: Organization. The purpose of this address has been argued extensively. Used within enterprises networks to identify the boundry of their network. Used the following format [L] Global ID Subnet ID Interface ID40- Bits 16 Bits64-Bits
Currently the site local addresses begins with FD00::/8 Here is a unique private IPv6 address range generated just for you (refresh page to get another one): Prefix/L: fd. Global ID: c c7. SubnetID: 315b Combined/CID: fdc0:3928:71c7:315b::/64. IPv6 addresses: fdc0:3928:71c7:315b:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx
Global routing prefix is 48 bits or less. Subnet ID is comprised of whatever bits are left over after global routing prefix. The primary addresses expected to comprise the IPV6 Internet Are from the 2001::16 /16.
Configuring IPV6 Address In global configuration Mode:- R1(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing. R1(config)#interface. R1(config)#ipv6 address R1(config)#ipv6 enable. R1(config)#no shutdown. R1(config)#exit
Configuring IPV6 Address In global configuration Mode:- R1(config)#ipv6 unicast routing. R1(config)#interface se 0/0/0 R1(config)#ipv6 address 2001:210:10:1::1/64. R1(config)#ipv6 enable R1(config)#exit
IPV6 routing Protocol. In addition to static routing nearly every routing protocol has been updated to support IPv6 1] RIPng. 2]OSPFv3. 3]EIGRP for IPv6. 4]IS-IS for IPv6. 5]MP-BGP4 [Multiprotocol BGP]