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1 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. CCNA TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IP Addressing Halmstad University Olga Torstensson 035-167575

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Presentation on theme: "1 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. CCNA TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IP Addressing Halmstad University Olga Torstensson 035-167575"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. CCNA TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IP Addressing Halmstad University Olga Torstensson

2 222 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Objectives Introduction to TCP/IP Internet addresses Obtaining an IP address

3 333 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. History and Future of TCP/IP The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) created the TCP/IP reference model because it wanted a network that could survive any conditions. Some of the layers in the TCP/IP model have the same name as layers in the OSI model.

4 444 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Application Layer Handles high-level protocols, issues of representation, encoding, and dialog control. The TCP/IP protocol suite combines all application related issues into one layer and ensures this data is properly packaged before passing it on to the next layer.

5 555 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Application Layer Examples

6 666 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Transport Layer Five basic services: Segmenting upper-layer application data Establishing end-to-end operations Sending segments from one end host to another end host Ensuring data reliability Providing flow control

7 777 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Transport Layer Protocols

8 888 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Internet Layer The purpose of the Internet layer is to send packets from a network node and have them arrive at the destination node independent of the path taken.

9 999 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Network Access Layer The network access layer is concerned with all of the issues that an IP packet requires to actually make a physical link to the network media. It includes the LAN and WAN technology details, and all the details contained in the OSI physical and data link layers.

10 10 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Comparing the OSI Model and TCP/IP Model

11 11 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Similarities of the OSI and TCP/IP Models Both have layers. Both have application layers, though they include very different services. Both have comparable transport and network layers. Packet-switched, not circuit-switched, technology is assumed. Networking professionals need to know both models.

12 12 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Differences of the OSI and TCP/IP Models TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer into its application layer. TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into one layer. TCP/IP appears simpler because it has fewer layers. TCP/IP transport layer using UDP does not always guarantee reliable delivery of packets as the transport layer in the OSI model does.

13 13 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Internet Architecture Two computers, anywhere in the world, following certain hardware, software, protocol specifications, can communicate, reliably even when not directly connected. LANs are no longer scalable beyond a certain number of stations or geographic separation.

14 14 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IP Addressing An IP address is a 32-bit sequence of 1s and 0s. To make the IP address easier to use, the address is usually written as four decimal numbers separated by periods. This way of writing the address is called the dotted decimal format.

15 15 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Decimal and Binary Conversion

16 16 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IPv4 Addressing

17 17 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Class A, B, C, D, and E IP Addresses

18 18 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Reserved IP Addresses Certain host addresses are reserved and cannot be assigned to devices on a network. An IP address that has binary 0s in all host bit positions is reserved for the network address. An IP address that has binary 1s in all host bit positions is reserved for the network address.

19 19 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Public and Private IP Addresses No two machines that connect to a public network can have the same IP address because public IP addresses are global and standardized. However, private networks that are not connected to the Internet may use any host addresses, as long as each host within the private network is unique. RFC 1918 sets aside three blocks of IP addresses for private, internal use. Connecting a network using private addresses to the Internet requires translation of the private addresses to public addresses using Network Address Translation (NAT).

20 20 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction to Subnetting To create a subnet address, a network administrator borrows bits from the host field and designates them as the subnet field.

21 21 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IPv4 versus IPv6 IP version 6 (IPv6) has been defined and developed. IPv6 uses 128 bits rather than the 32 bits currently used in IPv4. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers to represent the 128 bits. IPv4

22 22 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Obtaining an Internet Address Static addressing Each individual device must be configured with an IP address. Dynamic addressing Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) DHCP initialization sequence Function of the Address Resolution Protocol ARP operation within a subnet

23 23 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Static Assignment of IP Addresses Each individual device must be configured with an IP address.

24 24 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) MAC HEADERIP HEADER RARP REQUEST MESSAGE Destination FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF Source FE:ED:FD:23:44:EF Destination Source ???????? What is my IP address?

25 25 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. BOOTP IP The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) operates in a client/server environment and only requires a single packet exchange to obtain IP information. BOOTP packets can include the IP address, as well as the address of a router, the address of a server, and vendor-specific information.

26 26 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Allows a host to obtain an IP address using a defined range of IP addresses on a DHCP server. As hosts come online, contact the DHCP server, and request an address.

27 27 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Problems in Address Resolution In TCP/IP communications, a datagram on a local- area network must contain both a destination MAC address and a destination IP address. There needs to be a way to automatically map IP to MAC addresses. The TCP/IP suite has a protocol, called Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), which can automatically obtain MAC addresses for local transmission. TCP/IP has a variation on ARP called Proxy ARP that will provide the MAC address of an intermediate device for transmission outside the LAN to another network segment.

28 28 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Each device on a network maintains its own ARP table. A device that requires an IP and MAC address pair broadcasts an ARP request. If one of the local devices matches the IP address of the request, it sends back an ARP reply that contains its IP-MAC pair. If the request is for a different IP network, a router performs a proxy ARP. The router sends an ARP response with the MAC address of the interface on which the request was received, to the requesting host.

29 29 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Each device on a network maintains its own ARP table. A device that requires an IP and MAC address pair broadcasts an ARP request. If one of the local devices matches the IP address of the request, it sends back an ARP reply that contains its IP-MAC pair. If the request is for a different IP network, a router performs a proxy ARP. The router sends an ARP response with the MAC address of the interface on which the request was received, to the requesting host.


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