Presentation on theme: "IP address Universally accepted addressing method is required so that all hosts can communicate with each other TCP/IP based network is assigned with unique."— Presentation transcript:
1 IP addressUniversally accepted addressing method is required so that all hosts can communicate with each otherTCP/IP based network is assigned with unique addresses known as IP addresses
2 IP address Network layer addresses (IP addresses) are 32 bits long. Presented as four octets in dotted decimal format.IP address has two components: Network ID and Host ID.
6 IP address classes: Class A First bit of a Class A address is always 0.First 8 bits identify network part of the address.Possible network address from toRemaining three octets used for the host portion of the address.Each class A network have up to 16,777,214 possible IP addresses.
8 IP address classes: Class B First 2 bits of Class B address is always 10.First two octets identify network part of the address.Possible network address from toRemaining two octets used for host portion of the address.Class B network have up to possible IP addresses.
10 IP address classes: Class C First 3 bits of a Class C address is always 110.First three octets identify network part of the address.Possible network address from toRemaining last octet used for host portion of the address.Class C network have up to 254 possible IP addresses.
13 Bits on the IP address Network Bits : Host Bits : Identifies network IDIdentifies class of the IP addressAll of bits are 0: not allowedHost Bits :Identifies host IDAll of bits are 0: reserved for network addressAll of bits are 1: reserved for broadcast address
14 IP address classes: Summary : Class A.: Loopback network.: Class B.: Class C.: Class D, multicast.>= : Class E, reserved.
15 Network addressprovide a convenient way to refer to all of the addresses on a particular network or subnetwork.Two hosts with differing network address require a device, typically a router, in order to communicate.An IP address that ends with binary 0s in all host bits is reserved for the network address.
16 Broadcast addressBroadcast goes to every host with a particular network ID number.IP address that ends with binary 1s in all host bits is reserved for the directed broadcast address.An IP address with binary 1s in all network bits and host bits is reserved for the local broadcast address.
17 Example: 172.16.20.200 172.16.20.200 is Class B address Network portion:Host portion:Network address:Broadcast address:
18 Private addresses According to RFC-1918. Organizations make use of the private Internet address space for hosts that require IP connectivity within their enterprise network, but do not require external connections to the global Internet.Class A:Class B:Class C:
19 Reserved addressesThe bits that define the host portion of an IP address should not be all “1”. Any IP address with the host portion consisting of all “1” is interpreted as “all host”.Example : means all hosts on network number 128.1
20 Reserved addressesThe bits that define the host portion of an IP address should not be all “0”. Any IP address with the host portion consisting of all “0” is interpreted as network address.Example : means network number.
21 Reserved addressesThe bits used to define the network portion of an IP address should not be all “0”. A network portion address of all “0” is interpreted as “this network”.Example : means Host 63 on this network.
22 Reserved addressesThe Class A network number 127.x.x.x is assigned as “Loop-back” function. This means that a datagram sent by a higher-level protocol to a Network 127 address should loop back inside the host.
23 Review Classes of IP address and range of IP on each class. Determine network portion and host portion in a IP address.Understand about broadcast addresses.Understand about valid host address.Binary and Decimal conversion.
25 What Is a Subnet? Series of Networks within a Network Created by subdividing Host address field and creating a Subnetwork FieldAll Hosts on a Subnetwork share a common subnetwork address
26 Why Subnet a Network?Provides Greater Organization of Large Networks (Class A 16 Million Hosts!)Allows Additional Networks (subnets) without applying for additional IPsGives local administrators more controlProvides a Third Level of HierarchyReduces the Size of Broadcast Domains
27 How Do You Create Subnets? Bits are Borrowed from the Host FieldThis Creates a Subnet Field in the IP address
28 Class C Subnets Network Network Network Host S S H H H H H H Two Bits Borrowed from the Host Field to form a third layer of hierarchy - A Subnet FieldTwo Bits must always remain so a maximum of 6 Bits may be borrowed from a Class C networkHow many bits can be borrowed from a Class B network? From a Class A network?
29 # Subnets Created = 2# Borrowed Bits Class C SubnetsNetworkNetworkNetworkHostSSHHHHHHThe number of Subnets Created is calculated using the following formula:# Subnets Created = 2# Borrowed Bits
33 How Many Subnets? Borrow 2 Bits = 22 = 4 Subnets If you Borrow 2 Host Bits you do NOT get 4 Subnets. Why?Remember the Network Address and Broadcast Address - Both of these addresses are Reserved, they cannot be used!
35 # Hosts/Subnet = 2# Host Bits Remaining # Hosts = 26 = 64 hosts/subnet How Many Hosts/Subnet?NetworkNetworkNetworkHostSSHHHHHHThe number of Hosts per subnet is calculated using the following formula:# Hosts/Subnet = 2# Host Bits Remaining# Hosts = 26 = 64 hosts/subnet
36 6 Host Bits Remain = 26 = 64 Hosts How Many Hosts/Subnet?6 Host Bits Remain = 26 = 64 HostsIf there are 6 Host Bits remaining you do NOT get 64 Hosts/Subnet. Why?Each subnetwork has its own Subnetwork Address and Broadcast Address - Both of these addresses are Reserved and cannot be used!Thus only 62 Hosts are available.
38 Formulas to Remember! # Subnets Created = 2# Borrowed Bits Remember to subtract 2 for the Network Address and Broadcast Address.Remember to subtract 2 for the Subnetwork Address and Subnetwork Broadcast Address.# Hosts/Subnet = 2# Host Bits Remaining
39 Determining Network/Host ID Given 2 IP addresses and The subnet mask is Determine the network address and the host address, also decide whether the message need to be send through the router.
40 Determining Network/Host ID ==Network ID = =>Host ID = =>=Network ID = =>Host ID = =>
41 Determining Network/Host ID Given 2 IP addresses and The subnet mask is Determine the network address and the host address, also decide whether the message need to be send through the router.
42 Determining Network/Host ID ==Network ID ==>Host ID = =>=Network ID = =>Host ID = =>
43 Determining Network/Host ID Suppose a Class B IP address is and the subnet mask is Find the number of subnet available and state the subnet addresses. How many hosts can each subnet have ?
44 Determining Network/Host ID x.x = xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx=Network ID = xxx=> x.0As extra 3 bits is added into the subnet mask, we have increased the bits available for the network ID. Now, we can have 6 [(2^3) – 2 ] different Network ID.
45 Determining Network/Host ID =>=>=>=>=>=>Each subnet can have [2^13 –2] = 8190 hosts.