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**IP Addressing Terminology**

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**Binary And Decimal Numbers**

Where do our numbers come from? Where do binary Numbers come from? Our numbers are Base ten-ten fingers and ten toes Binary originated with Leibniz (also calculus-developed for logic) Boole-but then found use in computers and electronics

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**Binary vs. Decimal Binary Number 1000 Decimal Number 1000**

What is the difference? Write up numbers-1, 2, 4, 8 for Binary-1000 is eight! Switch to white board and do some examples! When Converting to Binary-Remember the 8 bit sequence

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**Convert Decimal to Binary**

Convert 105 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 1 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? = 105 Can I subtract 128? No Can I subtract 64? Yes- with 41 left Can I subtract 32? Yes-with 9 left Can I subtract 16? Can I subtract 8? Yes-1 left Can I subtract 4? 2? 1?

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**Convert Binary to Decimal**

Convert Add the decimal number when the bit is a 1 128 32 16 2 __1_ 179

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**IP addressing Scheme Dotted-decimal, as in 172.163.30.56**

Binary, as in Hexadecimal, as in AC.10.1E.38 (least likely)

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**IP Address Essential For each class you MUST know**

Address Class Range Reserved Addresses Default Subnet Mask Understand Network and Broadcast Address

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**Internet Address Classes**

Class A – Range to Class B – Range to Class C – Range to Class D – Range 224 to 239 (network address only) Class E – Range 240 to 247 (reserved for future use)

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**IP Addressing Rules Loopback address Broadcast address Network address**

Special-case source address Reserved IP addressing

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Reserved Addresses

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**Class A Structure Range Default Subnet Mask Class A Addresses**

Network.node.node.node Range through Default Subnet Mask Class A Addresses Valid hosts = 0’s & 255s are valid hosts but hosts bits cannot all be off or on at the same time! 224-2 = 22 Reserved Addresses: through

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**Class B Structure Range Default Subnet Mask Class B Valid Host IDs**

Network.Network.node.node Range through Default Subnet Mask Class B Valid Host IDs Valid hosts = 0’s & 255s are valid hosts but hosts bits cannot all be off or on at the same time! 216-2 = 214 Reserved Addresses: through

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**Class C Structure Network.Network.Network.node Range**

through Default Subnet Mask Class C Valid Host IDs Valid hosts = 28-2 = 26 Reserved Addresses: through

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**IP Addressing Rules Loopback address Anything that starts with 127**

Broadcast addresses Host portion is all 1 Network and special-case source addresses Host portion is all 0 Reserved IP addressing As seen on previous slides

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**Subnetworks Subnet masks ANDing**

Distinguish the network and host portions of an IP address Specify whether a destination address is local or remote ANDing

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**Key Subnetting Ideas If you know the subnet mask, figure out ranges**

Subtract Subnet mask from 256 Result is starting network address and block size Figure out network addresses Add block size to self up to subnet mask Figure out Broadcast addresses One less than next network address Figure out available addresses Between Network and Broadcast

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**Figuring Out subnets Figure out how many bits you have to play with**

You can steal from the host portion. How many subnets or hosts are needed? Use the 2n-2>= what you need formula Determine the subnet mask Make the bits you steal into 1’s and the rest into 0’s

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**Key Subnetting Ideas If you know the subnet mask, figure out ranges**

Subtract Subnet mask from 256 Result is starting network address and block size Figure out network addresses Add block size to self up to subnet mask Figure out Broadcast addresses One less than next network address Figure out available addresses Between Network and Broadcast

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**Basic Subnetting Example**

What is the network address for the following IP address, subnet mask combination: IP Address Subnet Mask

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**Basic Subnetting Example**

IP Address Subnet Mask Step =16 Step 2. 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96 (stop when you are past the number in question Step 3. 31, 47, 63, 79, 95, 111 Step 4. Answer-C

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**Basic Subnetting Example**

Which of the following are valid addresses for the following network (Choose 2) IP Address Subnet Mask

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**Basic Subnetting Example**

IP Address Subnet Mask Step =32 Step 2. 32, 64, 96, 128 (only need to go as far as question) Step 3. 63, 95, 127, 159 Step 4. Network 96 Range through

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**CIDR Notation and subnet Masks**

/ notation shows how many bits are 1 in subnet mask. For example: /8 = = /12= = /16= =

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**CIDR Notation and subnet Masks**

To figure subnet mask from / notation Step 1. Draw out bits, figure out how many bits are used in subnetted octet Step 2. For subnetted octect, write out 8 bit number with powers of 2 Step 3. Convert from Binary to Decimal Step 4. Write our subnet mask Step 5. Use number to figure Networks, Broadcasts and Ranges.

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**CIDR Example What is the subnet mask for the following address**

IP Address: /20

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**CIDR Example IP Address: 140.34.16.240 /20**

Step Step Step =240 Step Step 5. Network Broadcast Range through

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**Custom Subnet Masks Step 1: Determine the number of subnets needed**

Step 2: Determine the number of bits to borrow from the host portion Step 3: Determine the subnet mask Step 4: Determine the maximum number of hosts per subnetwork Step 5: Determine the subnetwork addresses for each subnet Step 6: Determine the address ranges for each subnetwork

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**Basic Subnetting Example**

What is the network address for the following IP address, subnet mask combination: IP Address Subnet Mask

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**Basic Subnetting Example**

IP Address Subnet Mask Step =16 Step 2. 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96 (stop when you are past the number in question Step 3. 31, 47, 63, 79, 95, 111 Step 4. Answer-C

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**Basic Subnetting Example**

What is the network address for the following IP address, subnet mask combination: IP Address Subnet Mask

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**Basic Subnetting Example**

Which of the following are valid addresses for the following network (Choose 2) IP Address Subnet Mask

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**Basic Subnetting Example**

IP Address Subnet Mask Step =32 Step 2. 32, 64, 96, 128 (only need to go as far as question) Step 3. 63, 95, 127, 159 Step 4. Network 96 Range through

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**Basic Subnetting Example**

Which of the following are valid addresses for the following network (Choose 2) IP Address Subnet Mask

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**CIDR Notation and subnet Masks**

/ notation shows how many bits are 1 in subnet mask. For example: /8 = = /12= = /16= =

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**CIDR Notation and subnet Masks**

To figure subnet mask from / notation Step 1. Draw out bits, figure out how many bits are used in subnetted octet Step 2. For subnetted octect, write out 8 bit number with powers of 2 Step 3. Convert from Binary to Decimal Step 4. Write our subnet mask Step 5. Use number to figure Networks, Broadcasts and Ranges.

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**CIDR Example What is the subnet mask for the following address**

IP Address: /20

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**CIDR Example IP Address: 140.34.16.240 /20**

Step Step Step =240 Step Step 5. Network Broadcast Range through

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**CIDR Example What is the subnet mask for the following address**

IP Address: /20

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**Custom Subnet Masks Step 1: Determine the number of subnets needed**

Step 2: Determine the number of bits to borrow from the host portion Step 3: Determine the subnet mask Step 4: Determine the maximum number of hosts per subnetwork Step 5: Determine the subnetwork addresses for each subnet Step 6: Determine the address ranges for each subnetwork

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Binary Lesson 4 Hexadecimal and Binary Practice. Counting to 15 Base Base Base 16 Base Base Base 16 Two Ten (Hex) Two Ten (Hex) 0 0 0 1000 8 8 0 0 0 1000.

Binary Lesson 4 Hexadecimal and Binary Practice. Counting to 15 Base Base Base 16 Base Base Base 16 Two Ten (Hex) Two Ten (Hex) 0 0 0 1000 8 8 0 0 0 1000.

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