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IP Addressing Terminology. Binary And Decimal Numbers Where do our numbers come from? Where do binary Numbers come from?

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Presentation on theme: "IP Addressing Terminology. Binary And Decimal Numbers Where do our numbers come from? Where do binary Numbers come from?"— Presentation transcript:

1 IP Addressing Terminology

2 Binary And Decimal Numbers Where do our numbers come from? Where do binary Numbers come from?

3 Binary vs. Decimal Binary Number 1000 Decimal Number 1000 When Converting to Binary-Remember the 8 bit sequence 1286432168421

4 Convert Decimal to Binary Convert 105 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 1 1 ? ? ? ? ? 0 1 1 0 ? ? ? ? 0 1 1 0 1 ? ? ? 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 = 105 Can I subtract 128? No Can I subtract 64? Yes- with 41 left Can I subtract 32? Yes-with 9 left Can I subtract 16? No Can I subtract 8? Yes-1 left Can I subtract 4? 2? 1? 1286432168421

5 Convert Binary to Decimal Convert 10110011 Add the decimal number when the bit is a 1 128 32 16 2 __1_ 179 1286432168421

6 IP addressing Scheme Dotted-decimal, as in 172.163.30.56 Binary, as in 10101100.00010000.00011110.00111000 Hexadecimal, as in AC.10.1E.38 (least likely)

7 IP Address Essential For each class you MUST know –Address Class Range –Reserved Addresses –Default Subnet Mask Understand Network and Broadcast Address

8 Internet Address Classes Class A – Range 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 Class B – Range 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255 Class C – Range 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255 Class D – Range 224 to 239 (network address only) Class E – Range 240 to 247 (reserved for future use)

9 IP Addressing Rules Loopback address Broadcast address Network address Special-case source address Reserved IP addressing

10 Reserved Addresses

11 Class A Structure –Network –Network.node.node.node Range –0.0.0.0 through 126.255.255.255 Default Subnet Mask –255.0.0.0 Class A Addresses –Valid hosts = 10.0.0.1 - 10.255.255.254 0s & 255s are valid hosts but hosts bits cannot all be off or on at the same time! 2 24 -2 = 2 2 Reserved Addresses: –10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255

12 Class B Structure –NetworkNetwork –Network.Network.node.node Range –128.0.0.0 through 191.255.255.255 Default Subnet Mask –255.255.0.0 Class B Valid Host IDs –Valid hosts = 172.16.0.1 - 172.16.255.254 0s & 255s are valid hosts but hosts bits cannot all be off or on at the same time! 2 16 -2 = 2 14 Reserved Addresses: –172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255

13 Class C Structure –NetworkNetworkNetwork –Network.Network.Network.node Range –192.0.0.0 through 223.255.255.255 Default Subnet Mask –255.255.255.0 Class C Valid Host IDs –Valid hosts = 192.168.100.1 - 192.168.100.254 2 8 -2 = 2 6 Reserved Addresses: –192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255

14 IP Addressing Rules Loopback address –Anything that starts with 127 127.0.0.1 Broadcast addresses –Host portion is all 1 192.168.10.255 255.255.255.0 Network and special-case source addresses –Host portion is all 0 192.168.10.0 Reserved IP addressing –As seen on previous slides

15 Subnetworks Subnet masks –Distinguish the network and host portions of an IP address –Specify whether a destination address is local or remote ANDing

16 Key Subnetting Ideas If you know the subnet mask, figure out ranges 1.Subtract Subnet mask from 256 Result is starting network address and block size 2.Figure out network addresses Add block size to self up to subnet mask 3.Figure out Broadcast addresses One less than next network address 4.Figure out available addresses Between Network and Broadcast

17 Figuring Out subnets 1.Figure out how many bits you have to play with You can steal from the host portion. 2.How many subnets or hosts are needed? Use the 2 n -2>= what you need formula 3.Determine the subnet mask Make the bits you steal into 1s and the rest into 0s

18 Key Subnetting Ideas If you know the subnet mask, figure out ranges 1.Subtract Subnet mask from 256 Result is starting network address and block size 2.Figure out network addresses Add block size to self up to subnet mask 3.Figure out Broadcast addresses One less than next network address 4.Figure out available addresses Between Network and Broadcast

19 Basic Subnetting Example What is the network address for the following IP address, subnet mask combination: IP Address 210.32.100.70 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.240 A.210.32.100.0 B.210.32.100.32 C.210.32.100.64 D.210.32.100.79

20 Basic Subnetting Example IP Address 210.32.100.70 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.240 Step 1. 256-240=16 Step 2. 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96 (stop when you are past the number in question Step 3. 31, 47, 63, 79, 95, 111 Step 4. Answer-C

21 Basic Subnetting Example Which of the following are valid addresses for the following network (Choose 2) IP Address 180.64.96.0 Subnet Mask 255.255.224.0 A.180.64.1.1 B.180.64.110.240 C.180.64.35.10 D.180.64.120.255

22 Basic Subnetting Example IP Address 180.64.96.0 Subnet Mask 255.255.224.0 Step 1. 256-224=32 Step 2. 32, 64, 96, 128 (only need to go as far as question) Step 3. 63, 95, 127, 159 Step 4. Network 96 Range 180.64.96.1 through 180.64.127.254

23 CIDR Notation and subnet Masks / notation shows how many bits are 1 in subnet mask. For example: /8 = 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 =255.0.0.0 /12= 11111111.11110000.00000000.00000000 = 255.240.0.0 /16=11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 =255.255.0.0

24 CIDR Notation and subnet Masks To figure subnet mask from / notation Step 1. Draw out bits, figure out how many bits are used in subnetted octet Step 2. For subnetted octect, write out 8 bit number with powers of 2 Step 3. Convert from Binary to Decimal Step 4. Write our subnet mask Step 5. Use number to figure Networks, Broadcasts and Ranges.

25 CIDR Example What is the subnet mask for the following address IP Address: 140.34.16.240 /20 A.255.255.0.0 B.255.255.248.0 C.255.240.0.0 D.255.255.240.0

26 CIDR Example IP Address: 140.34.16.240 /20 Step 1. 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000 Step 2. 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Step 3. 128+64+32+16=240 Step 4. 255.255.240.0 Step 5. Network-140.34.16.0 Broadcast-140.34.31.255 Range-140.34.16.1 through 140.34.31.254

27 Custom Subnet Masks Step 1: Determine the number of subnets needed Step 2: Determine the number of bits to borrow from the host portion Step 3: Determine the subnet mask Step 4: Determine the maximum number of hosts per subnetwork Step 5: Determine the subnetwork addresses for each subnet Step 6: Determine the address ranges for each subnetwork

28 Basic Subnetting Example What is the network address for the following IP address, subnet mask combination: IP Address 210.32.100.70 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.240 A.210.32.100.0 B.210.32.100.32 C.210.32.100.64 D.210.32.100.79

29 Basic Subnetting Example IP Address 210.32.100.70 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.240 Step 1. 256-240=16 Step 2. 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96 (stop when you are past the number in question Step 3. 31, 47, 63, 79, 95, 111 Step 4. Answer-C

30 Basic Subnetting Example What is the network address for the following IP address, subnet mask combination: IP Address 210.32.100.70 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.240 A.210.32.100.0 B.210.32.100.32 C.210.32.100.64 D.210.32.100.79

31 Basic Subnetting Example Which of the following are valid addresses for the following network (Choose 2) IP Address 180.64.96.0 Subnet Mask 255.255.224.0 A.180.64.1.1 B.180.64.110.240 C.180.64.35.10 D.180.64.120.255

32 Basic Subnetting Example IP Address 180.64.96.0 Subnet Mask 255.255.224.0 Step 1. 256-224=32 Step 2. 32, 64, 96, 128 (only need to go as far as question) Step 3. 63, 95, 127, 159 Step 4. Network 96 Range 180.64.96.1 through 180.64.127.254

33 Basic Subnetting Example Which of the following are valid addresses for the following network (Choose 2) IP Address 180.64.96.0 Subnet Mask 255.255.224.0 A.180.64.1.1 B.180.64.110.240 C.180.64.35.10 D.180.64.120.255

34 CIDR Notation and subnet Masks / notation shows how many bits are 1 in subnet mask. For example: /8 = 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 =255.0.0.0 /12= 11111111.11110000.00000000.00000000 = 255.240.0.0 /16=11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 =255.255.0.0

35 CIDR Notation and subnet Masks To figure subnet mask from / notation Step 1. Draw out bits, figure out how many bits are used in subnetted octet Step 2. For subnetted octect, write out 8 bit number with powers of 2 Step 3. Convert from Binary to Decimal Step 4. Write our subnet mask Step 5. Use number to figure Networks, Broadcasts and Ranges.

36 CIDR Example What is the subnet mask for the following address IP Address: 140.34.16.240 /20 A.255.255.0.0 B.255.255.248.0 C.255.240.0.0 D.255.255.240.0

37 CIDR Example IP Address: 140.34.16.240 /20 Step 1. 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000 Step 2. 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Step 3. 128+64+32+16=240 Step 4. 255.255.240.0 Step 5. Network-140.34.16.0 Broadcast-140.34.31.255 Range-140.34.16.1 through 140.34.31.254

38 CIDR Example What is the subnet mask for the following address IP Address: 140.34.16.240 /20 A.255.255.0.0 B.255.255.248.0 C.255.240.0.0 D.255.255.240.0

39 Custom Subnet Masks Step 1: Determine the number of subnets needed Step 2: Determine the number of bits to borrow from the host portion Step 3: Determine the subnet mask Step 4: Determine the maximum number of hosts per subnetwork Step 5: Determine the subnetwork addresses for each subnet Step 6: Determine the address ranges for each subnetwork


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