Presentation on theme: "Objectives: Chapter 4: IP Addressing Internet Architecture IPv4 Addressing IP address Classes Subnets and subnet mask Subnets design with IP addressing."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives: Chapter 4: IP Addressing Internet Architecture IPv4 Addressing IP address Classes Subnets and subnet mask Subnets design with IP addressing IPv6
Taibah University 2 Internet Architecture Two computers, anywhere in the world, following certain hardware, software, protocol specifications, can communicate, reliably even when not directly connected. LANs are no longer scalable beyond a certain number of stations or geographic separation.
Taibah University 3 IP Address as a 32-Bit Binary Number Internet Addresses
Taibah University 4 Decimal Equivalents of 8-Bit Patterns
Taibah University 5 Binary and Decimal Conversion
Taibah University 8 IP Addresses as Decimal Numbers
Taibah University 9 Hosts for Classes of IP Addresses Class A (24 bits for hosts) 2 24 - 2 * = 16,777,214 maximum hosts Class B (16 bits for hosts) 2 16 - 2 * = 65,534 maximum hosts Class C (8 bits for hosts) 2 8 - 2 * = 254 maximum hosts * Subtracting the network and broadcast reserved address
Taibah University 10 IPv4 Address Classes Class D Addresses A Class D address begins with binary 1110 in the first octet. First octet range 224 to 239. Class D address can be used to represent a group of hosts called a host group, or multicast group. Class E Addresses First octet of an IP address begins with 1111 First octet range 240 to 255. Class E addresses are reserved for experimental purposes and should not be used for addressing hosts or multicast groups.
Taibah University 11 IP Addresses as Decimal Numbers
Taibah University 12 An IP address such as 18.104.22.168 that has all binary 1s in the host bit positions is reserved for the broadcast address. An IP address such as 22.214.171.124 that has all binary 0s in the host bit positions is reserved for the network address. Network IDs and Broadcast Addresses
Taibah University 18 Subnet Mask Determines which part of an IP address is the network field and which part is the host field Follow these steps to determine the subnet mask : –1. Express the subnetwork IP address in binary form. –2. Replace the network and subnet portion of the address with all 1s. –3. Replace the host portion of the address with all 0s. –4. Convert the binary expression back to dotted-decimal notation.
Taibah University 19 Subnet mask in decimal = 255.255.240.0 Subnet Mask
Taibah University 20 AND is like multiplication. OR is like addition. NOT changes 1 to 0, and 0 to 1. Boolean Operations: AND, OR, and NOT
Taibah University 21 Performing the AND Function
Taibah University 22 Range of Bits Needed to Create Subnets
Taibah University 24 Creating a Subnet Determining subnet mask size Computing subnet mask and IP address Computing hosts per subnetwork Boolean AND operation IP configuration on a network diagram Host and subnet schemes Private addresses
Taibah University 25 Class B address with 8 bits borrowed for the subnet 126.96.36.199 (8 bits borrowed for subnetting) routes to subnet 188.8.131.52 rather than just to network 184.108.40.206. Determining Subnet Mask Size
Taibah University 26 The address 220.127.116.11 would be on the subnet 18.104.22.168. 11000101000011110001011010000011 Network FieldSNHost Field Class C address 22.214.171.124 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224 (3 bits borrowed) Determining Subnet Mask Size
Taibah University 27 Subnetting Example with AND Operation
Taibah University 28 The router connects subnetworks and networks. IP Configuration on a Network Diagram
Taibah University 29 Using /24 subnet... 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 Network SubnetHost But internal routers think all these addresses are on different networks, called subnetworks Internet routers still “see” this net as 220.127.116.11 Class B Network Host Given the Class B address 18.104.22.168 Subnet Example
Taibah University 30 Using the 3rd octet, 22.214.171.124 was divided into: 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 and so on... Network SubnetHost Subnet Example
Taibah University 31 Subnet Example Network SubnetHost Network address 188.8.131.52 with /16 network mask 190520Host190521Host190522Host Using Subnets: subnet mask 255.255.255.0 or /24 190523Host19052Etc.Host19052254Host19052255Host 255 Subnets 2 8 - 1 Cannot use last subnet as it contains broadcast address Subnets
Taibah University 32 Subnet Example Network SubnetHost Subnet 0 (all 0’s subnet) issue: The address of the subnet, 184.108.40.206/24 is the same address as the major network, 220.127.116.11/16. 190520Host190521Host19052Etc.Host19052254Host19052255Host 255 Subnets 2 8 - 1 Subnets Last subnet (all 1’s subnet) issue: The broadcast address for the subnet, 18.104.22.168 is the same as the broadcast address as the major network, 22.214.171.124.
Taibah University 33 The number of lost IP addresses with a Class C network depends on the number of bits borrowed for subnetting. Host Subnet Schemes
Taibah University 34 IP addressing crisis Address Depletion Internet Routing Table Explosion
Taibah University 35 IPv4 Addressing Subnet Mask One solution to the IP address shortage was thought to be the subnet mask. Formalized in 1985 (RFC 950), the subnet mask breaks a single class A, B or C network in to smaller pieces.
Taibah University 37 IPv4 versus IPv6 IP version 6 (IPv6) has been defined and developed. IPv6 uses 128 bits rather than the 32 bits currently used in IPv4. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers to represent the 128 bits. IPv4
Taibah University 38 Long Term Solution: IPv6 (coming) IPv6, or IPng (IP – the Next Generation) uses a 128-bit address space, yielding 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 possible addresses. IPv6 has been slow to arrive IPv4 revitalized by new features, making IPv6 a luxury, and not a desperately needed fix IPv6 requires new software; IT staffs must be retrained IPv6 will most likely coexist with IPv4 for years to come. Some experts believe IPv4 will remain for more than 10 years.