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Objectives: Chapter 4: IP Addressing  Internet Architecture IPv4 Addressing IP address Classes Subnets and subnet mask Subnets design with IP addressing.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives: Chapter 4: IP Addressing  Internet Architecture IPv4 Addressing IP address Classes Subnets and subnet mask Subnets design with IP addressing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objectives: Chapter 4: IP Addressing  Internet Architecture IPv4 Addressing IP address Classes Subnets and subnet mask Subnets design with IP addressing IPv6

2 Taibah University 2 Internet Architecture Two computers, anywhere in the world, following certain hardware, software, protocol specifications, can communicate, reliably even when not directly connected. LANs are no longer scalable beyond a certain number of stations or geographic separation.

3 Taibah University 3 IP Address as a 32-Bit Binary Number Internet Addresses

4 Taibah University 4 Decimal Equivalents of 8-Bit Patterns

5 Taibah University 5 Binary and Decimal Conversion

6 Taibah University 6 IP Address Classes

7 Taibah University 7 IP Address Classes

8 Taibah University 8 IP Addresses as Decimal Numbers

9 Taibah University 9 Hosts for Classes of IP Addresses Class A (24 bits for hosts) * = 16,777,214 maximum hosts Class B (16 bits for hosts) * = 65,534 maximum hosts Class C (8 bits for hosts) * = 254 maximum hosts * Subtracting the network and broadcast reserved address

10 Taibah University 10 IPv4 Address Classes Class D Addresses A Class D address begins with binary 1110 in the first octet. First octet range 224 to 239. Class D address can be used to represent a group of hosts called a host group, or multicast group. Class E Addresses First octet of an IP address begins with 1111 First octet range 240 to 255. Class E addresses are reserved for experimental purposes and should not be used for addressing hosts or multicast groups.

11 Taibah University 11 IP Addresses as Decimal Numbers

12 Taibah University 12 An IP address such as that has all binary 1s in the host bit positions is reserved for the broadcast address. An IP address such as that has all binary 0s in the host bit positions is reserved for the network address. Network IDs and Broadcast Addresses

13 Taibah University 13 Private Addresses

14 Taibah University 14 Reserved Address Space Network ID Broadcast address Hosts for classes of IP addresses

15 Taibah University 15 Basics of Subnetting Classical IP addressing Subnetworks Subnet mask Boolean operations: AND, OR, and NOT Performing the AND function

16 Taibah University 16 Subnetworks To create a subnet address, a network administrator borrows bits from the original host portion and designates them as the subnet field.

17 Taibah University 17 Subnetworks

18 Taibah University 18 Subnet Mask Determines which part of an IP address is the network field and which part is the host field Follow these steps to determine the subnet mask : –1. Express the subnetwork IP address in binary form. –2. Replace the network and subnet portion of the address with all 1s. –3. Replace the host portion of the address with all 0s. –4. Convert the binary expression back to dotted-decimal notation.

19 Taibah University 19 Subnet mask in decimal = Subnet Mask

20 Taibah University 20 AND is like multiplication. OR is like addition. NOT changes 1 to 0, and 0 to 1. Boolean Operations: AND, OR, and NOT

21 Taibah University 21 Performing the AND Function

22 Taibah University 22 Range of Bits Needed to Create Subnets

23 Taibah University 23 Subnet Addresses

24 Taibah University 24 Creating a Subnet Determining subnet mask size Computing subnet mask and IP address Computing hosts per subnetwork Boolean AND operation IP configuration on a network diagram Host and subnet schemes Private addresses

25 Taibah University 25 Class B address with 8 bits borrowed for the subnet (8 bits borrowed for subnetting) routes to subnet rather than just to network Determining Subnet Mask Size

26 Taibah University 26 The address would be on the subnet Network FieldSNHost Field Class C address with a subnet mask of (3 bits borrowed) Determining Subnet Mask Size

27 Taibah University 27 Subnetting Example with AND Operation

28 Taibah University 28 The router connects subnetworks and networks. IP Configuration on a Network Diagram

29 Taibah University 29 Using /24 subnet Network SubnetHost But internal routers think all these addresses are on different networks, called subnetworks Internet routers still “see” this net as Class B Network Host Given the Class B address Subnet Example

30 Taibah University 30 Using the 3rd octet, was divided into: and so on... Network SubnetHost Subnet Example

31 Taibah University 31 Subnet Example Network SubnetHost Network address with /16 network mask Host190521Host190522Host Using Subnets: subnet mask or / Host19052Etc.Host Host Host 255 Subnets Cannot use last subnet as it contains broadcast address Subnets

32 Taibah University 32 Subnet Example Network SubnetHost Subnet 0 (all 0’s subnet) issue: The address of the subnet, /24 is the same address as the major network, / Host190521Host19052Etc.Host Host Host 255 Subnets Subnets Last subnet (all 1’s subnet) issue: The broadcast address for the subnet, is the same as the broadcast address as the major network,

33 Taibah University 33 The number of lost IP addresses with a Class C network depends on the number of bits borrowed for subnetting. Host Subnet Schemes

34 Taibah University 34 IP addressing crisis Address Depletion Internet Routing Table Explosion

35 Taibah University 35 IPv4 Addressing Subnet Mask One solution to the IP address shortage was thought to be the subnet mask. Formalized in 1985 (RFC 950), the subnet mask breaks a single class A, B or C network in to smaller pieces.

36 Taibah University 36 Short Term Solutions: IPv4 Enhancements CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) – RFCs 1517, 1518, 1519, 1520 VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask) – RFC 1009 Private Addressing - RFC 1918 NAT/PAT (Network Address Translation / Port Address Translation) – RFC

37 Taibah University 37 IPv4 versus IPv6 IP version 6 (IPv6) has been defined and developed. IPv6 uses 128 bits rather than the 32 bits currently used in IPv4. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers to represent the 128 bits. IPv4

38 Taibah University 38 Long Term Solution: IPv6 (coming) IPv6, or IPng (IP – the Next Generation) uses a 128-bit address space, yielding 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 possible addresses. IPv6 has been slow to arrive IPv4 revitalized by new features, making IPv6 a luxury, and not a desperately needed fix IPv6 requires new software; IT staffs must be retrained IPv6 will most likely coexist with IPv4 for years to come. Some experts believe IPv4 will remain for more than 10 years.


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