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J UST W HO WERE THE M ONGOLS A NYWAY ? The Mongols are an Asiatic people that originate from a region to the north of China and south of Russia. They are a mostly nomadic people, masters of horseback riding. The Mongols founded the largest empire in history, larger even than Rome.
H OW DID G ENGHIS K HAN R ISE ? In 1167 AD, a man named Temujin was born, better known as Genghis Khan. Through tribal warfare and innovative tactics, Genghis Khan was able to unite the Mongol tribes. Genghis means “ Oceanic ” or “Powerful,” a reference to the territory he conquered, and his military ability (Ocean to Ocean). He was also known as the “Khan of Khans” (King of Kings)
H OW DID THEY BUILD AN E MPIRE ? After uniting the Mongol tribes, Genghis Khan turned his military force outward, and conquered China, Persia and parts of European Russia. After subjugating (conquering) a native people, the Mongols established a system of governors, maintaining the society and government of the region. Genghis established a code of law called the “Great Yasa.” His son Ogodei was appointed to enforce the law.
W HAT WAS THE G REAT Y ASA ? The Great Yasa was a definitive code of Mongol Laws. Some of the laws were: Priests, lawyers, scholars and doctors were tax exempt Mongols shall have no honorary title. It is forbidden to make peace with an enemy who has not been beaten nor beaten you. Do not pollute water Do not get drunk more than a few times a month Outlawed slavery Established Taxes
H OW DID THE MONGOLS C ONQUER THE W ORLD ? Helping the Mongols in forging an Empire were aspects of their nomadic lifestyle. Their greatest strengths were their mobility, their ability on horseback and their skill in using a bow and arrow. They had a very large, well organized military. The military was organized according to the decimal system with groups of ten, one hundred, one thousand and ten thousand. Each group elected their own leader. Any man can rise through the ranks to leadership. This was Social Mobility.
W HAT M ADE THE M ONGOLS P OWERFUL ? The groups of Ten Thousand did not have elected leaders. Their leaders were picked by the Khan, to ensure loyalty. If they did not perform well, they were replaced. Mongols used advanced military tactics to ensure their victory. Among these strategies were a mock retreat that led enemy armies into traps and an elite group of suicide warriors that would charge into enemy armies and attack. When their enemies were weak, they would send a group of horsemen to force the enemy to retreat.
SO W HAT DID G ENGHIS K HAN L OOK L IKE ? Genghis Khan had, according to accounts from his day, red hair and green eyes. To this day, certain Mongol tribes have a prevalence of people with green eyes and red hair. One in 200 people is related to Genghis Khan. (.5% of the global population)
S O WERE THE M ONGOLS B ARBARIANS ? Under the definitions established by the neolithic revolution, Mongols were both civilized and uncivilized Uncivilized – they remained nomadic Civilized – They had domesticated animals
AIM: W HAT H APPENED TO THE M ONGOLS ? Do Now: List FIVE (5) traits the Mongols have that helped them build an empire
M ONGOL I NVASION OF E UROPE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OiLTX_2- 560&feature=related
S O W HO T OOK O VER FOR G ENGHIS K HAN ? Genghis Khan died in 1227. The location of his tomb is still unknown. Each of his four sons with his Empress became leaders of a region. The sons were equal in their rule, however Ogedei Khan took over as the head of the Empire.
W HAT WERE T HE 3 K HANATES ? A Khanate is a kingdom ruled by the Mongols. 1. The Khanate of the Golden Horde was a kingdom established in Russia, Hungary and Bulgaria. The Khanate was established by Genghis Khan’s grandson Batu.
B ATU AND THE G OLDEN H ORDE Batu was the grandson of Genghis Khan, and founded the Khanate of the Golden Horde. This empire was based in western Russia, and was a major factor in uniting the Russian people. The Russians gained advantages in trade and protection from the Golden Horde.
2. T HE I L -K HANATE A man named Hulegu wanted to destroy the Abbasid Caliphate (kingdom). The Abbasid Caliphate fell for several reasons. The Caliph (King) was a Sunni Muslim, but he ruled over a Shia minority, as well as some Christian groups. They helped the invaders. The Caliphate fell, and was replaced by the Il- Khanate, which took over the captured territory.
3. T HE Y UAN D YNASTY The Yuan Dynasty was founded in China, replacing the Song Dynasty. The leader, Kublai Khan established his capital in modern day Beijing, China. He built a magnificent palace for himself, the Forbidden City in Beijing. European traveler Marco Polo met Kublai Khan on his journey to the Orient (East).
W HO W AS T AMERLANE ? Tamerlane, also known as Timur, was a Mongol who converted to Islam. In the 15 th Century, Tamerlane converted his fellow Mongol rulers to Islam, and reunited the Il-Khanate and the Khanate of the Golden Horde under him. He conquered India, and founded the Mughal Empire. He returned to Genghis Khan’s inclusive religious policies, and had a large multi-ethnic army. At his strongest, Tamerlane attempted to restore the Yuan Dynasty.
W HAT DID THE M ONGOL E MPIRE D O ? The Mongols built roads, and made water accessible to its populations. Communications networks were reorganized and updated. The Mongols encouraged trade, developing trade routes that linked China and Central Asia to Europe. Granaries (storehouses) were built throughout their empire to protect against famine. The Black Death (Bubonic Plague), starting in Central Asia, made its way into China and Europe because of the trade routes.
W HAT T ECHNOLOGY DID THE M ONGOLS S HARE ? 1. Printing Press 2. Paper making 3. Compass 4. Gunpowder (aka Black Powder Because of Marco Polo and Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta these inventions spread to Europe and the Middle East The Black Death originated in Asia, and spread to Europe through the Silk Road.
W HAT W AS THE B LACK D EATH ? The Black Death also known as the Bubonic Plague was a highly contagious disease, carried by rats along the Silk Road. It originated somewhere in Eastern Asia, and was used by the Chinese as an excuse to overthrow the Yuan Dynasty. It eventually spread to Europe in the 1300s, and would kill between 75 to 200 MILLION PEOPLE
W HY DID THE M ONGOLS D ECLINE ? The Chinese used the Mandate of Heaven to overthrow the Mongol rulers because of the Black Death. The Pax Mongolia declined after the death of Kublai Khan in 1294, and the Silk Road closed. The separation of the Mongol Empire into separate Khanates. The Mongol Empire became too large to govern as a unified body, and the Mongols were better conquerors than administrators. The final blow was the damage to the Khanates from the Black Death.
W HAT HAPPENED DURING M ONGOL D ECLINE ? When the Mongol empire declined, it left many power vacuums. Charismatic leaders such as Ivan the Terrible rose to power in conquered areas. A civil war broke out as old tribe rivalries resurfaced. When the Mongol leaders died, the khanates fell into anarchy.
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