3 Mongol Culture Nomadic pastoralists Goats, sheep Tribe Divided into clansTemporary confederationsLeaders elected
4 Khan Kabul Khan Chinggis Khan 1207, expedition Capital at karakorum 1100s, defeats Qin forcesGrandson, TemujinChinggis Khan 1207, expeditionXi-Xia, Tangut king defeatedKara Khitai defeatedMongolian UnityKhwarazm, Muhammad Shah II defeatedXi-Xia kingdom and Qin Empire destroyed1227, death of Chinggis KhanCapital at karakorumShamanisticTolerated other religionsNew administrationCommerce thrives
5 Khan Chinggis Khan Born Temujin Develops alliances among Mongols 1206, elected khagan (supreme ruler)1227, division of empireThree sons, one grandsonOgedei, third sonElected great khan
6 Building the Mongol War Machine Mounted warriorsTumens,10,000 troopsMessenger forceAdopted gunpowder, cannons
7 Mongol ConquestsMongols first invaded kingdoms in China then turned west to the Islamic world and finally conquered the kingdoms of Russia.Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) mobilized the Horde to invade many countries outside of Mongolia.Mongols were the most formidable nomadic challenge to the stationary civilizations.Their powerful short bows, fired from horseback, were devastating weapons.Harsh discipline, enforced through a formal code, brought punishments and rewards for conduct.
8 China Under Mongol Rule The Mongols conquered the Northern kingdoms of China. (Xi and Xia, completely destroyed over two million people)The Mongols captured fortified cities those that resisted were either killed or enslaved.
9 Mongols in EuropeThe armies of the Golden Horde, swept westward till they reached into Poland and Russia.The Khan’s defeated the Russians in 1236 CE.Kingdoms were spared if they paid tribute. Kingdoms that refused were burned to the ground and the soil was turned red with blood.Ogedei renews attack on ChinaKubilai KhanGrandson of Chinggis KhanAttacks Song1271, transformation to Yuan dynastyCapital at Tatu (Beijing)Ogodei
10 Building the Mongol War Machine Mounted warriorsTumens,10,000 troopsMessenger forceAdopted gunpowder, cannons