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AP World History Chapter 14

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Presentation on theme: "AP World History Chapter 14"— Presentation transcript:

1 AP World History Chapter 14
The Last Nomadic Challenge: From Chinggis Khan to Timur


3 Mongol Culture Nomadic pastoralists Goats, sheep Tribe
Divided into clans Temporary confederations Leaders elected

4 Khan Kabul Khan Chinggis Khan 1207, expedition Capital at karakorum
1100s, defeats Qin forces Grandson, Temujin Chinggis Khan 1207, expedition Xi-Xia, Tangut king defeated Kara Khitai defeated Mongolian Unity Khwarazm, Muhammad Shah II defeated Xi-Xia kingdom and Qin Empire destroyed 1227, death of Chinggis Khan Capital at karakorum Shamanistic Tolerated other religions New administration Commerce thrives

5 Khan Chinggis Khan Born Temujin Develops alliances among Mongols
1206, elected khagan (supreme ruler) 1227, division of empire Three sons, one grandson Ogedei, third son Elected great khan

6 Building the Mongol War Machine
Mounted warriors Tumens,10,000 troops Messenger force Adopted gunpowder, cannons

7 Mongol Conquests Mongols first invaded kingdoms in China then turned west to the Islamic world and finally conquered the kingdoms of Russia. Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) mobilized the Horde to invade many countries outside of Mongolia. Mongols were the most formidable nomadic challenge to the stationary civilizations. Their powerful short bows, fired from horseback, were devastating weapons. Harsh discipline, enforced through a formal code, brought punishments and rewards for conduct.

8 China Under Mongol Rule
The Mongols conquered the Northern kingdoms of China. (Xi and Xia, completely destroyed over two million people) The Mongols captured fortified cities those that resisted were either killed or enslaved.

9 Mongols in Europe The armies of the Golden Horde, swept westward till they reached into Poland and Russia. The Khan’s defeated the Russians in 1236 CE. Kingdoms were spared if they paid tribute. Kingdoms that refused were burned to the ground and the soil was turned red with blood. Ogedei renews attack on China Kubilai Khan Grandson of Chinggis Khan Attacks Song 1271, transformation to Yuan dynasty Capital at Tatu (Beijing) Ogodei

10 Building the Mongol War Machine
Mounted warriors Tumens,10,000 troops Messenger force Adopted gunpowder, cannons



13 Mongol Positives Mongol women retain liberties
Chabi, wife of Kubilai, influential Mongol patronage Attracts scholars, artists Religious toleration Buddhists, Nestorians, Latin Christians, Daoists, Muslims Marco Polo Visits courtKubilai China Protects peasant lands Famine relief Tax, labor burden lessened

14 The Brief Ride of Timur Timur-i Lang (Tamerlane) Turkish
Base at Samarkand 1405, death Empire dissolves End of steppe nomad conquests

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